INTRODUCTION: End-of-life (EoL) care professionals are prone to burnout given the intense emotional nature of their work. Previous research supports the efficacy of art therapy in reducing work-related stress and enhancing emotional health among professional EoL caregivers. Integrating mindfulness meditation with art therapy and reflective awareness complementing emotional expression has immense potential for self-care and collegial support. Mindful-compassion art therapy (MCAT) is a novel, empirically informed, and highly structured intervention that aims to reduce work-related stress, cultivate resilience, and promote wellness. This study aims to assess the potential effectiveness of MCAT for supporting EoL care professionals in Singapore.
METHODS: This is an open-label waitlist randomized controlled trial. Sixty EoL care professionals, including doctors, nurses, social workers, and personal care workers, are randomly allocated to one of two groups: (i) an intervention group that receives MCAT immediately and (ii) a waitlist-control group that receives MCAT after the intervention group completes treatment. Face-to-face self-administered outcome assessments are collected at three different time points-baseline (T1) for both groups, post-intervention (T2), and 6-week follow-up (T3) for intervention group-as well as pre-intervention (T2) and post-intervention (T3) for the waitlist-control group. The primary outcome measure is burnout, and secondary measures include emotional regulation, resilience, compassion, quality of life, and death attitudes. Between- and within-participant comparisons of outcomes are conducted, and the appropriate effect size estimates are reported. An acceptability and feasibility study is to be conducted by using a triangulation of qualitative data with framework analysis.
DISCUSSION: The outcomes of this study will contribute to advancements in both theories and practices for supporting professional EoL caregivers around the world. It will also inform policy makers about the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of delivering a multimodal psycho-socio-spiritual intervention within a community institutional setting. The study has received ethical approval from the institutional review board of Nanyang Technological University.
Cet ouvrage présente dix-neuf récits amusants, cruels ou tendres autour de la thématique de la fin de vie. La relation à la mort des divers personnages, enfant, personnes âgées, citadin, campagnard ou aventurier révèle leur manière d'envisager la vie, sereinement ou avec désespoir.
Un témoignage de résilience et de courage d'un homme atteint de la maladie de Charcot, syndrome neurodégénératif également appelé sclérose latérale amyotrophique (SLA). Lorsque lui est annoncé qu'il n'a plus que trois ans à vivre, l'auteur, déployant des ressources inespérées, décide de se battre et de continuer à vivre pour ses proches et pour lui-même malgré sa tétraplégie.
Grief research has typically centered on one time point, without considering the impact of multiple losses over time. In this study, 546 bereaved emerging adults were divided into three groups: those who experienced a recent loss (0-2 years ago), a past loss (>2 years ago), or a combination of both recent and past losses. Differences between the groups on resilience, depression, and grief symptomatology were examined. Those who had experienced both losses (recent and past) and recent losses endorsed significantly more grief symptoms than those in the past loss group. Findings highlight how multiple losses impact grief.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined trajectories of emotional functioning in three domains (depressive symptoms, emotional and social loneliness) for individuals who experienced spousal bereavement, and investigated cross-domain adaptation. We hypothesized that emotional difficulties after bereavement would be more detectable in emotional loneliness than depressive symptoms or social loneliness.
METHOD: Using latent class growth analysis, we modelled changes in depressive symptoms, emotional loneliness and social loneliness from 12 years pre- to 12 years post-bereavement on data from 686 older adults to identify trajectories indicating adaptive and maladaptive functioning in each domain.
RESULTS: Most participants reported depressive symptoms below the clinically relevant threshold by showing a resilient (15.5%) or a slightly elevated (53.5%) trajectory post-bereavement. One-third (31%) reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms. More than half of the sample reported emotional loneliness post-bereavement, varying form prolonged (17%), increasing and prolonged (28.3%), and chronically high (8.9%) levels. Remaining participants displayed resilience (13.5%) or recovery (32.3%). Social loneliness showed four trajectories: very low and resilient (43.3%), low and resilient (27.5%), increasing (20.2%), and chronically high (9%) levels. One third of participants maintained adaptive, whereas 12% displayed maladaptive, functioning across all domains post-bereavement.
DISCUSSION: An increase in emotional loneliness was the most commonly observed change after spousal bereavement. This highlights the central role of emotional loneliness in depression after bereavement.
BACKGROUND: Nurses in inpatient palliative care are frequently exposed to death and dying in addition to common stressors found in other nursing practice. Resilience may mitigate against stress but remains ill-defined and under-researched in the specialist palliative care setting.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to understand resilience from the perspectives of inpatient palliative care nurses.
DESIGN: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.
DATA SOURCES: Academic Search Ultimate, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline Complete, PsycINFO and Scopus.
REVIEW METHODS: The review stages were searching for relevant literature, selecting relevant papers, data extraction, critical appraisal and thematic synthesis.
RESULTS: Eight studies revealed 10 subthemes, 3 descriptive themes and 1 analytical theme: resilience occurs when nurses incorporate stressful aspects of their personal or professional lives into a coherent narrative that enhances their ability to cope with the demands of their role.
CONCLUSION: Palliative care nursing is more stressful if patients or situations remind nurses of personal experiences. Nurses cope better with adequate support; however, coping does not necessarily imply increased resilience. Resilience occurs when nurses cognitively process their experiences, articulate their thoughts and feelings into a coherent narrative, and construct a sense of meaning or purpose. Future research could explore how nurses understand resilience and how it could be enhanced in the palliative care inpatient setting. With resilience, nurses may remain in the profession longer and improve the quality of care when they do.
INTRODUCTION: Grief among bereaved parents is known to cause psychological distress and physical illness, but knowledge concerning factors that can contribute to health promotion after bereavement is scarce. Childhood cancer remains the most common non-accidental cause of death among children in Norway. The aim of the present study was to explore if resilience factors among cancer-bereaved parents could predict whether they will be able to come to terms with their grief 2-8 years following the loss.
METHODS: A Norwegian cross-sectional national survey was conducted among 161 cancer-bereaved parents using a study-specific questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to explore whether resilience factors predicted parents' grief outcome 2-8 years after their loss.
RESULTS: On the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), three of the resilience factors contributed significantly in predicting whether the parents in the present study would come to terms with their grief 2-8 years after the loss their child: "Perception of self "(OR 2.08, p = .048), "Social resources" (OR 2.83, p = .008) and "Family cohesion" (OR .41, p = .025). The results showed a negative relationship between time since loss (2-6 years) and whether the parents answered that they had come to terms with their grief (p = < .05). The loss of a parent (OR .30, p = .030) combined with the loss of their child had a negative and significant effect on whether they indicated that they had processed their grief.
CONCLUSION: The total score of RSA and three of the six resilient factors contributed significantly in predicting whether cancer-bereaved parents in the present study indicated that they had come to terms with their grief to a great extent. The present study supports hypotheses that regard resilience as an important contribution in predicting healthy outcomes in people exposed to adverse life events.
Caumes, 17 ans, jeune homme fragile et écorché vif, vit entouré de ses amis, de sa famille et d'Esther, dont il est amoureux. Mais sa vie va être bouleversée en 2015 par les attentats de Charlie Hebdo et du Bataclan, et surtout par la mort d'Hakim, son ami qui meurt sous les coups de jeunes fachos.
Vient le moment du deuil, de la dépression et de la volonté d'en finir.
Pour s'en sortir, il écrit l'histoire qu'il vient de vivre et affronte les conséquences de ce choix.
End-of-life caregiving is a highly stressful experience often fraught with conflict and tension. However, little is known about the ways family conflict manifests for informal caregivers of home hospice patients (IHCs). Framed by relational dialectics theory, the purpose of this study was to provide nurses and other health care professionals with an empirical understanding of how IHCs experience family conflict and tensions associated with caregiving. A second aim was to determine what strategies IHCs use to manage these family conflicts. Data used in this qualitative secondary analysis were originally collected as part of a randomized clinical trial of an IHC support intervention. Based on thematic analysis of data from 25 IHCs who reported family conflict, a conceptual model of caregiver resilience was developed from the themes and categories that emerged during the coding stage. Autonomy was identified as a central tension. IHCs used several strategies to address family conflict including communication, formal support, and emotional self-care.
This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework of the experience of persons who have lost a family member to suicide in Japan. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 24 such family members. They conceptualized their experience as a process of regaining my new life. Initially, their lives were out of their hands, but gradually they learned striving skills and recuperative conditioning, and integrated the skills to regain their lives. Some participants eventually reached a state of living a redefined life. How individuals underwent this process varied. The authors identified two types of people dealing with this issue: dialoguers and mood changers.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the influence of such psychological factors as emotional intelligence and perceived competence on caregiver burden in those who care for patients with advanced cancer.
METHOD: A total of 50 informal caregivers completed self-report assessments of resilience, perceived competence, emotional regulation, positive aspects of care, emotional distress, and burden. We conducted a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. Descriptive statistics were obtained. Associations between the different variables were assessed using nonparametric and multiple regression analyses.
RESULTS: Participants were mainly female (88%) and had an average of 20 months of caregiving. Their mean age was 47 years (range = 20-79). More than half of scored high on resilience, positive aspects of caring, and emotional distress, moderately on perceived competence, and low on burden. Most caregivers used cognitive restructuring and social support as coping strategies. Inverse negative correlations were observed among emotional distress, emotional state, and burden with perceived competence and positive aspects of caring (p < 0.05). Significant differences were obtained for emotional distress, cognitive restructuring, and resiliency. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that perceived competence, resiliency, and positive aspects of caring were the main predictors of burden.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Resilience, perceived competence, emotional regulation, and positive aspects of care constitute protective factors against caregiver burden. Taken together, these aspects should be promoted by the healthcare staff in order to facilitate caregiver adaptation and well-being.
BACKGROUND: Research shows that formal and informal social support can facilitate resilience in carers. There is a paucity of research exploring social support and resilience amongst recently bereaved informal carers.
AIM: To examine how the presence or absence of distinct dimensions of social support facilitate or hinder resilience in recently bereaved informal carers.
PARTICIPANTS: 44 bereaved carers, who had been identified by GP as 'main carer' of someone recently deceased (3-12 months), aged between 38 and 87 years old (mean= 67).
METHODS: Thematic analysis then the Ecological Framework of Resilience as an organisational tool to develop overarching themes in the data. We used the Sherbourne and Stewart model to identify social support that was lacking as well as social support that was present.
RESULTS: A range of social support types were identified. There was an emphasis on the importance of relationships with both health professionals and family members, including the care recipient. However, social support was not necessary for resilience if the participant had other resources.
CONCLUSIONS: Social support for carers providing end of life care is almost exclusively based around end of life care 'work'. In comparison to other research our study suggests that relationships with family and health professionals are paramount. Multidimensional support is needed for carers to enhance their resilience.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A holistic palliative approach for heart failure care emphasizes supporting nonprofessional informal caregivers. Informal caregivers play a vital role caring for heart failure patients. However, caregiving negatively affects informal caregivers' well being, and in turn heart failure patients' health outcomes. This opinion article proposes that complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory applied to heart failure models of care can support the resiliency of the heart failure patient - informal caregiver dyad.
RECENT FINDINGS: Heart failure care is enacted within a complex system composed of patients, their informal caregivers and a variety of health professionals. In a national study, we employed a CAS perspective to explore how all parts of the heart failure team function interdependently in emergent and adaptive ways. Salient in our data were the severe vulnerability of elderly heart failure patients and their long-term partners who suffered from a chronic illness. Novel approaches are needed that can quickly adapt and reorganize care when unpredictable disturbances occur in the couples' functional capacity.
SUMMARY: The linear protocol-driven care models that shape heart failure guidelines, training and care delivery initiatives do not adequately capture heart failure patients' social environment. CAS is a powerful theoretical tool that can render visible the most vulnerable members of the heart failure team, and incite robust specialized holistic palliative heart failure care models.
Purpose: Challenges experienced by staff in the Oncology Services Group at Queensland Children's Hospital led to issues with staff retention, well-being, and stress on team culture. Therefore, a customized program was developed through a needs analysis to improve the well-being and resilience of oncology staff, enabling them to cope with stressors and critical incidents inherent in their everyday work and to flourish. The program included education, on-site counselors, mindfulness sessions, debriefing, well-being resources, and improved engagement, support, and communication.
Methods: Evaluation of the program in the first year examined program participation, staff feedback following education workshops and mindfulness sessions, staff retention rates, and the results of an annual organizational staff survey and a program outcome survey.
Results: Approximately 76% of staff attended the Introduction to Well-being workshop, and 98% of responses to survey questions were positive. Staff also provided positive feedback on the other well-being workshops and sessions embedded within existing education programs. Employee Assistance Program counseling sessions had an 81% uptake, with a wide variety of presenting issues, 62% related to work. All participants in mindfulness sessions agreed that it was a valuable tool to improve clinical practice, 94% said it had an immediate positive impact on their well-being, and 70% agreed that they were applying mindfulness principles outside the sessions. Staff retention and turnover improved. Staff reported a positive effect on awareness of self-care, addressing risks to resilience, seeking support from trusted colleagues, coping with critical incidents, and the ability to interact positively with patients and families.
Conclusion: The evaluation showed a positive impact on staff well-being. Although there was a wide variety of successful interventions reported in the literature, sustainability needs to be considered. Feedback on this program found that staff appreciated being listened to, valued, and supported through the strategies, and the ongoing program will continue to monitor staff needs and be responsive in building their resilience and well-being.
OBJECTIVES: The Bereavement Risk Assessment Tool (BRAT) seems to be useful in identifying those who are likely to suffer from the more severe consequences of bereavement. To date, however, only a few studies have examined bereavement risk using the BRAT. This study investigated bereavement risk in family caregivers of patients with cancer using the Japanese version of the Bereavement Risk Assessment Tool (BRAT-J). We also investigated the relationship of bereavement risk with psychological distress and resilience among caregivers to determine the validity of the BRAT-J.
METHODS: We conducted family psychoeducation in the palliative care unit of Tohoku University Hospital with participants who were recruited in this study. Among the participants, 50 family caregivers provided their written informed consent and were included in this study. Participants were assessed using the BRAT-J and completed the Japanese version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and the Tachikawa Resilience Scale (TRS).
RESULTS: According to the BRAT-J, five individuals (10%) were in the high category of bereavement risk (level 4 or 5). We also found that family caregivers of patients experienced many different pressures, such as facing the unknown; their own work; and insufficient financial, practical, or physical resources. These issues are associated with various mental problems. Additionally, the level of bereavement risk was significantly correlated with K6 scores ( = 0.30, p = 0.032), and the TRS score ( = –0.44, p = 0.001). These correlations confirmed previous findings and that the BRAT-J can be an efficient screening tool for the bereavement risk of family caregivers of patients with cancer.
Significance of results: It appears that the BRAT-J is useful in predicting the likelihood of difficulties or complications in bereavement for family caregivers and could help to provide support with these issues when needed.
Le deuil est un travail de détachement, la résilience un travail d'accomplissement. pour celui ou celle qui vit un deuil, pour celui ou celle qui souhaite manifester sa sympathie, quel est le chemin du deuil ? Quel est celui de la résilience?
Two bereaved mothers recount how they made meaning after the deaths of their children, recounting how opportunities to tell their stories in medical settings enabled them to construct narratives that promoted resilience and a sense of control. Pediatric palliative care can be conceived as opening space for patients and guardians to tell their stories outside of the specifics of illness, so medical teams can work to accommodate families' values and goals, thereby initiating the process of meaning making. Viewing videos of parent stories enables medical trainees to enhance their communications skills, empathy, and compassion.
Background and Objectives: Spousal loss is a stressful life event that often results in significant depressive symptoms, with men often experiencing more significant depressive symptoms than women. Recent research suggests that psychological resilience may play a role in shaping how well people recover from the loss of a spouse. This study examined the moderating effect of resilience on widowhood in relation to changes in depressive symptoms for men and women.
Research Design and Methods: This study used data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine a change in depressive symptoms for men and women who experience spousal loss compared to those who remain continuously married (N = 5,626). We used the Simplified Resilience Score, which is based on measures drawn from the psychosocial and lifestyle questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression was used to assess depression following reported spousal loss for widows relative to their continuously married counterparts.
Results: Results show resilience moderated depressive symptoms following spousal loss, but these effects varied by gender. Resilience was significantly and negatively associated with depressive symptoms for married but not for widowed women. However, for widowed men, resilience was significantly and negatively associated with depressive symptoms, and a high resilience score buffered the effect of widowhood.
Discussion and Implications: Our study suggests that having high levels of resilience prior to spousal loss may help offset persistent depressive symptoms, especially for men. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Siblings of children with life limiting conditions (LLC) are an important part of the broader family system and require consideration in the holistic care of the family. There can be considerable variation in the functioning and adjustment of these siblings. The current paper explores the resilience paradigm, particularly in the context of siblings of children with LLC and serious medical conditions. The potential impact of children living with a seriously ill brother or sister will be overviewed, and a range of functional outcomes considered. Factors contributing to sibling resilience are detailed, including individual, family, and broader external and social factors. Given the limited research with siblings of children with LLC, literature has also been drawn from the siblings of children with serious and/or chronic medical conditions. Implications for clinical practice and future research are considered. Pediatric palliative care services may be well placed to contribute to this body of research as they have commonly extended relationships with the families of children with LLC, which span across the child's disease trajectory.
Background: Grief involves a set of emotions, thoughts and behaviors that people experience when faced with a lack or threat of loss. This study was conducted to evaluate the suicidal ideation among women with experience of the death of a young person and assessed the predictive role of individualism-collectivism, social support, and resilience in suicidal ideation.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to August 2016 through recruitment of 146 breaved women from Gilan-e gharb (the west part of Iran). Data gathering instruments included Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC), and Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-22.
Results: The findings showed that among women, 48 percent had suicidal ideation (scores above 6). The results of Pearson correlation showed that there were significant negative relationships between suicidal ideation (P<0.05) and factors such as collectivism (r=-0.286), family support (r=-0.558), support from friends (r=-0.307), support from significant others (r=-0.617), social support (r=-0.561), and resilience (r=-0.457). The results showed that individualism - collectivism, social support, and resilience correctly predicted 73.5% of women with suicidal ideation and 83.3% of women without suicidal ideation.
Conclusion: We concluded that higher collectivism, social support, and resilience in the bereaved women can lead to a reduction in suicidal ideation. Therefore, psychologists and counselors can provide the necessary background to strengthen supportive issues and the use of resilience-based interventions among bereaved women.