The potential association between serotonin syndrome and tapentadol is not well described in the literature. This study aimed to review the literature and identify methodological issues that could lead to inaccurately reported rates of serotonin syndrome associated with tapentadol use. A systematic review of English articles using MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Scopus was performed. Additional studies were identified by cross-referencing article bibliographies. Original research that examined the safety of tapentadol in patients with nonconfounding indications were examined. In total, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. There were 13 randomized clinical trials, 7 open-label trials, and 2 observational studies. All studies either did not mention whether serotonergic medication use was prohibited or disallowed use. Frequently reported adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, vomiting, and somnolence. No studies reported serotonin syndrome development. No included trials differentiated between the development of adverse events in patients taking serotonergic drugs and those who were not. This differentiation is necessary to evaluate the increased risk of adverse events in patients prescribed tapentadol concomitantly with other serotonergic medications. Therefore, the current tapentadol literature has important limitations that prevent the adequate characterization of the potential association between tapentadol and serotonin syndrome.
Background: Hospice is the key provider of end-of-life care to patients. As the number of U.S. hospice agencies has rapidly increased, the performance has been scrutinized more deeply.
Purpose: To foster understanding of how hospice performance is measured and what factors are associated with performance, we conducted a systematic review of empirical research on hospice performance in the United States.
Methods: Both structure-process-outcome and structure-conduct-performance frameworks were applied to categorize and summarize the hospice performance literature. A total of 36 studies were included in the systematic review.
Results: Hospice agencies adopted different strategies (e.g., service provision strategy and staffing strategy) to improve performance. Two strategic approaches (innovation and volunteer usage) were associated with better outcomes. Hospice organizational factors, market environment, and patient characteristics were related to hospice strategic conduct and performance. Majority of hospice performance studies have examined the relationship between hospice structure and strategic conduct/process, with fewer studies focusing on structure performance and even fewer concentrating on strategy performance.
Practice implications: Patient, organizational, and market factors are associated with hospice strategic conduct and performance. The majority of the literature considered the impact of hospice organizational characteristics, whereas only a few studies included patient and market factors. The summarization of factors that may influence hospice performance provides insight to different stakeholders.
Complicated grief is a prolonged, bereavement-specific disorder with significant psychological and physical consequences. Although complicated grief represents a risk to individuals with substance misuse, this relationship is poorly understood. Consequently, this systematic literature review examined empirical findings regarding the relationship between substance misuse and complicated grief. We searched 11 databases to identify pertinent quantitative studies published in English. Our search yielded 12 peer-reviewed journal articles (N = 1749) published between 1997 and 2017. Included studies evaluated the prevalence, assessment, etiology, correlates, risk factors, and treatment of complicated grief and substance misuse among individuals with one or both conditions. Our review found evidence of a positive relationship between complicated grief and substance misuse. Individuals with substance misuse were at increased risk for subsequent development of complicated grief, particularly when increases in substance consumption preceded bereavement. Conversely, complicated grief predicted increases in smoking and alcohol dependence. Multiple risk factors for individuals with complicated grief and substance misuse were identified and discussed. An existing complicated grief assessment performed well among individuals with substance misuse, and grief interventions were effective in reducing symptoms of complicated grief and substance misuse simultaneously. Given the severity of consequences associated with both conditions, more research is needed to understand this relationship, identify effective assessment tools, and evaluate intervention strategies to improve outcomes.
Introduction: Older patients with hip fracture have a 20% to 30% mortality rate in the year after surgery. Nonoperative care has higher 1-year mortality rates and is generally only pursued in those with an extraordinarily high surgical risk. As the population ages, more patients with hip fracture may fall into this category. The orthopedic surgeon is typically the main consultant responsible for deciding between surgery and conservative management, and the reasoning behind one decision over the other is often poorly understood. We undertook a review to determine decision-making tools for surgery in high-risk patients with hip fracture.
Materials and Methods: A review was conducted using PubMed to determine articles published using the terms palliative care, conservative care, nonoperative, hip fracture, orthopedic procedures, fracture fixation, and surgery. Our search resulted in 13 articles to review. These were further screened to determine tools for use in surgical decision-making.
Results: Several potential decision-making tools were found in our search. The potential tools to identify patients who would benefit from nonoperative treatment included the Palliative Performance Scale for severe dementia, the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Katz Activities of Daily Living scales for prefracture immobility, a combination of clinical signs and laboratory tests to determine risk of imminent death, and the Charlson Comorbidity Score for additional serious comorbidities. No tools have been prospectively tested in a clinical setting.
Discussion: Evaluation of each patient using a variety of decision making tools should help the orthopedic surgeon determine which patients would be better suited to non-operative management. After determining the benefit of non-operative care, they must effectively allow the fracture to heal while ameliorating pain. Palliative care physicians can fulfill this role by providing support and symptom relief.
Conclusions: Surgical decision-making for hip fracture repair in the elderly patients is not straight forward. Several tools may be helpful to the surgeon in determining who may be better suited for nonoperative care or a palliative care referral. Prospective data do not exist in these decision-making tools.
This article presents an integrative literature review of the experience of dementia care associated with the extended palliative phase of dementia. The aim was to highlight how dementia is defined in the literature and describe what is known about the symptomatology and management of advanced dementia regarding the needs and preferences of the person with dementia and their family carer/s. There was no consistent definition of advanced dementia. The extended palliative phase was generally synonymous with end-of-life care. Advanced care planning is purported to enable professionals to work together with people with dementia and their families. A lack of understanding of palliative care among frontline practitioners was related to a dearth of educational opportunities in advanced dementia care. There are few robust concepts and theories that embrace living the best life possible during the later stages of dementia. These findings informed our subsequent work around the concept, 'Dementia Palliare'.
This review gives an overview of treatments used to concurrently reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD). For purposes of this review, emphasis is placed on locating and comparing literature on exposure- and nonexposure-based treatments. Across 14 studies, the overall findings suggest that treatments are generally effective in treating PTSD and PGD concurrently and that treatments incorporating exposure-based components performed similarly to those without exposure-based components. However, methodological limitations preclude the ability to draw firm conclusions about the added impact of exposure-based components in traumatic grief treatment. Future directions for research on concurrent treatments for PTSD and PGD are discussed.
BACKGROUND: Contemporary health policies call for consumers to be part of all aspects of service planning, implementation, delivery and evaluation. The extent to which consumers are part of the systemic decision-making levels of palliative care appears to vary between and within services and organisations.
AIM: The aim of this systematic review is to develop understandings about consumer and carer leadership in palliative care.
DESIGN: A systematic, narrative synthesis approach was adopted due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The review was registered on PROSPERO prospectively (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018111625).
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO were searched for all studies published in English specifically focusing on consumers' leadership in palliative care organisations and systems. Articles were appraised for quality using a modified JBI-QARI tool.
RESULTS: Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria and quality assessment. Consumers are currently involved in leadership of palliative care teaching, research and services. Findings highlight the benefits of consumer leadership in palliative care including more relevant, higher-quality services, teaching and research. Across the included studies, it was not clear the extent to which consumer leaders had influence in relation to setting agendas across the palliative care sector.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that more could be done to support consumer leadership within palliative care. Academics and clinicians might improve the relevance of their work if they are able to more meaningfully partner with consumers in systemic roles in palliative care.
BACKGROUND: Socio-economic factors play important roles in place of death. However, up-to-date knowledge on socio-economic determinants for place of death is warranted including analysis of collinearity between socio-economic determinants.
AIM: To examine associations between socio-economic determinants (social class, deprivation level in area of residence, income, education, occupation, urbanisation) and place of death among adult patients with life-limiting illnesses. Furthermore, to describe how these factors are operationalised and examined for collinearity.
DESIGN: A systematic review was performed (PROSPERO, record: CRD42018091218) and quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycINFO was conducted for studies published from 1 January 2008 until the date of the search (23 March 2018) in English or Scandinavian languages.
RESULTS: Of the 1599 unique citations identified, 34 studies were eligible. Dying at home was to a high degree associated with better financial situation and living in rural areas. Furthermore, hospital death was associated with a high level of deprivation in the area of residence and being employed. Regarding educational level, we found mixed and inconclusive results.
CONCLUSION: Inequalities concerning place of death were found, and attention towards socio-economic inequality concerning place of death is necessary, especially in patients with a poor financial status, patients living in deprived and metropolitan areas and patients who are employed. Furthermore, we found a low degree of assessment for collinearity and adjustment of socio-economic variables. These issues should be considered in planning of future studies of socio-economic determinants for place of death.
BACKGROUND: Effective communication between healthcare professionals and relatives of patients approaching the end-of-life is vital to ensure patients have a 'good death'. To improve communication, it is important to first identify how this is currently being accomplished.
AIM: To review qualitative evidence concerning characteristics of communication about prognosis and end-of-life care between healthcare professionals and relatives of patients approaching the end-of-life.
DESIGN: Qualitative systematic review (PROSPERO registration CRD42017065560) using thematic synthesis. Peer-reviewed, English language articles exploring the content of conversations and how participants communicated were included. No date restrictions were applied. Quality of included studies was appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research.
DATA SOURCES: An electronic database search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE was performed.
RESULTS: Thirty-one papers were included. Seven themes were identified: highlighting deterioration; involvement in decision-making, post-decision interactional work, tailoring, honesty and clarity, specific techniques for information delivery and roles of different healthcare professionals. Varied levels of family involvement in decision-making were reported. Healthcare professionals used strategies to aid understanding and collaborative decision-making, such as highlighting the patient's deterioration, referring to patient wishes and tailoring information delivery. Doctors were regarded as responsible for discussing prognosis and decision-making, and nurses for providing individualized care.
CONCLUSION: Findings suggest training could provide healthcare professionals with these strategies to improve communication. Interventions such as question prompt lists could help relatives overcome barriers to involvement in decision-making. Further research is needed to understand communication with relatives in different settings and with different healthcare professionals.
Background: Delirium is a common and distressing neurocognitive condition that frequently affects patients in palliative care settings and is often underdiagnosed.
Aim: Expanding on a 2013 review, this systematic review examines the incidence and prevalence of delirium across all palliative care settings.
Design: This systematic review and meta-analyses were prospectively registered with PROSPERO and included a risk of bias assessment.
Data sources: Five electronic databases were examined for primary research studies published between 1980 and 2018. Studies on adult, non-intensive care and non-postoperative populations, either receiving or eligible to receive palliative care, underwent dual reviewer screening and data extraction. Studies using standardized delirium diagnostic criteria or valid assessment tools were included.
Results: Following initial screening of 2596 records, and full-text screening of 153 papers, 42 studies were included. Patient populations diagnosed with predominantly cancer (n = 34) and mixed diagnoses (n = 8) were represented. Delirium point prevalence estimates were 4%–12% in the community, 9%–57% across hospital palliative care consultative services, and 6%–74% in inpatient palliative care units. The prevalence of delirium prior to death across all palliative care settings (n = 8) was 42%–88%. Pooled point prevalence on admission to inpatient palliative care units was 35% (confidence interval = 0.29–0.40, n = 14). Only one study had an overall low risk of bias. Varying delirium screening and diagnostic practices were used.
Conclusion: Delirium is prevalent across all palliative care settings, with one-third of patients delirious at the time of admission to inpatient palliative care. Study heterogeneity limits meta-analyses and highlights the future need for rigorous studies.
Background: There is extensive need for palliative care worldwide, but access to care remains inadequate, especially for non-cancer patients. Video consultations are a promising tool in the provision of home-based palliative care, but an overview of evidence solely on video consultations in palliative care is lacking.
Aim: To review and synthesize current evidence regarding the use of video consultations in general and specialized palliative care to various patient groups.
Design: A systematic integrative review with a narrative synthesis was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA (2009) guidelines. PROSPERO #: CRD42018095383
Data sources: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychINFO were searched for primary research articles published between 2005 and 2018. In addition, reference lists of included articles were hand searched.
Results: The search resulted in 813 articles; 39 articles were included in the review, consisting of mixed methods (n = 14), qualitative (n = 10), quantitative (n = 10), and case studies (n = 5). The studies mainly focused on specialized palliative care to adult patients with cancer in high income countries. Through data analysis, six themes addressing advantages/disadvantages and facilitators/barriers were identified: (1) Redesign of care, (2) Communication, (3) User perceptions, (4) Technology, (5) Privacy issues, and (6) Economic implications.
Conclusion: Using video technology in palliative care has both advantages and disadvantages. However, evidence beyond the focus on specialized palliative care and patients with cancer is limited. Future research should focus on how and when video consultations might replace in-person specialized palliative care and video consultations in general palliative care, in low and middle income countries; and involve patients with a non-cancer diagnosis.
BACKGROUND: Finding alternative ways to reconnect with the deceased is a common feature of bereavement. However, it is currently unclear how bereaved children or young people establish and develop a "continuing bond" with deceased family members.
AIM: To investigate how bereaved young people continue bonds with deceased family members.
DESIGN: A systematically conducted narrative review was conducted using six electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and BNI. Limiters were applied to peer-reviewed articles published in English. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools.
RESULTS: Twenty articles were included in the review. Three overarching themes were generated: unintended connections, intended connections, and internalized connections.
CONCLUSION: Bereaved young people establish a sense of connection with deceased family members through various means (e.g., unprovoked or spontaneous reminders, physical mementos, internalized memories). Some connections are unintended and occur spontaneously. However, other young people will specifically seek ways to remember the deceased to provide a sense of enduring connection.
This article examines the intersection between masculinity, military culture, and hospice and palliative care (HPC). The authors conducted a narrative literature review, supplemented with clinical annotations, to identify the impact of masculinity and military culture on the following topics salient to end-of-life care with older male veterans: pain management, mental health, coping, communication, autonomy and respect, and family roles. Findings suggest that traits associated with masculinity and military culture have an influence on the end-of-life process and HPC for older male veterans. Specifically, results suggest that older male veterans may deny or minimize physical pain, decline mental health treatment, utilize maladaptive coping strategies, avoid emotional conversations, struggle to manage perceived shifts in autonomy, and experience challenges negotiating changing family roles. The authors provide clinical recommendations for providers across various disciplines to address the aforementioned concerns with older male veterans in HPC. Overall, information presented in this article may be an important contribution to the literature for building cultural competencies with older male veterans and has the potential to improve the delivery of HPC for veterans and their families.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence and mortality from end-stage liver disease is increasing, with a minority eligible for liver transplantation. Ascites is the commonest complication of end-stage liver disease and large volume paracentesis (LVP) the accepted management strategy where refractory to medical treatment. In malignant ascites, permanent indwelling peritoneal catheters (PIPC) are an established palliative intervention. The aims are to describe available data using permanent indwelling peritoneal catheters in refractory ascites due to end-stage liver disease.
METHODS: Using systematic review methodology, databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL [The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature], Google Scholar and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception-March 2018), for studies combining ascites and palliative care. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to results.
RESULTS: Following initial and updated searches, 225 studies were identified for full text review, 18 were eligible for final analysis. The studies displayed heterogeneity in design, reported on different indwelling catheters and were overall of low quality. Only one pilot randomised controlled trial was identified, of PIPC versus LVP, recruiting one patient into each arm. Technical insertion success was 100%, with low rates of non-infectious complications (<12%), none life threatening. Rates of bacterial peritonitis were not unacceptably high (12.7%), considering this was an end-stage liver disease population and only a minority utilising long-term prophylactic antibiotics. Only one study attempted quality-of-life assessments; none addressed potential health economic benefits.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite lack of well-designed studies, preliminary data suggests low significant complication rates; however safety and efficacy of permanent indwelling peritoneal catheters in end-stage liver disease remains to be confirmed. Further prospective randomised controlled trials are warranted, potentially translating permanent indwelling peritoneal catheters into improved palliative care in end-stage liver disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as high cost to the health service. Although often linked with inadequate care, in some patients, they may be unavoidable.
AIM: This systematic review aims to quantify the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in patients receiving palliative care and identify the risk factors for pressure ulcer development in these patients as well as the temporal relationship between pressure ulcer development and death.
DESIGN: The systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42017078211) and conducted in accordance with the 'PRISMA' pro forma. Articles were reviewed by two independent authors.
DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1946-22 September 2017), EMBASE (1996-22 September 2017), CINAHL (1937-22 September 2017) and Cochrane Library databases were searched. In all, 1037 articles were identified and 12 selected for analysis based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Overall pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence were found to be 12.4% and 11.7%, respectively. The most frequently identified risk factors were decreased mobility, increased age, high Waterlow score and long duration of stay.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pressure ulcers is higher in patients receiving palliative care than the general population. While this should not be an excuse for poor care, it does not necessarily mean that inadequate care has been provided. Skin failure, as with other organ failures, may be an inevitable part of the dying process for some patients.
PURPOSE: Patients with advanced cancer can experience debilitating physical symptoms, making participation in exercise programs difficult. This systematic review investigated the recruitment, adherence, and attrition rates of patients with advanced cancer participating in exercise interventions and examined components of exercise programs that may affect these rates.
METHODS: Relevant studies were identified in a systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to December 2017. Two quality assessment tools were used, and levels of evidence were assigned according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines.
RESULTS: The search identified 18 studies published between 2004 and 2017. Recruitment, adherence, and attrition rates varied widely among the studies reviewed. The mean recruitment rate was 49% (standard deviation [SD] = 17; range 15-74%). Patient-reported barriers to recruitment included time constraints and difficulties in traveling to exercise centers. Levels of adherence ranged from 44% to 95%; however, the definition of adherence varied substantially among trials. The average attrition rate was 24% (SD = 8; range 10-42%), with progression of disease status reported as the main cause for dropout during exercise interventions.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Concentrated efforts are needed to increase the numbers of patients with advanced disease recruited to exercise programs. Broadening the eligibility criteria for exercise interventions may improve accrual numbers of patients with advanced cancer to exercise trials and ensure patients recruited are representative of clinical practice.
OBJECTIVE: The unique needs of caregivers of those with advanced heart failure (HF) are not effectively being met, and reports of physical and mental health challenges are common. The objective is to identify the current state of the literature related to family caregivers of persons with advanced HF, ascertain gaps that require further exploration, and provide preliminary practice recommendations based on the results.
METHOD: Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative literature. A search of CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed identified 24 articles that met inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed using the constant comparison method and coded. Thematic analysis was used to develop themes.
RESULT: Sixteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies met inclusion criteria. Analysis of these studies identified six key areas: (1) undertaking a journey in a state of flux, (2) gaining strength, (3) forgetting oneself along the way, (4) seeking out sources of support, (5) preparing for end of life, and (6) finding closure.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The healthcare system currently struggles to meet the care demands of patients with chronic conditions such as advanced HF; as such, informal caregivers are undertaking key roles in the management of symptoms and promotion of the health of those with advanced HF. When caregivers are not adequately prepared for their role, both patient and caregiver well-being is compromised; therefore, a deeper understanding of the caregiving experience could assist in identifying the cause of caregiver anxiety and result in the development of strategies to minimize its effects. Overall, this review will also contribute to improving the current practice when working with caregivers of persons with advanced HF and serve as a basis for development of evidence informed interventions in the future.
BACKGROUND: Facilitating advance care planning with community-dwelling frail elders can be challenging. Notably, frail elders' vulnerability to sudden deterioration leads to uncertainty in recognising the timing and focus of advance care planning conversations.
AIM: To understand how advance care planning can be better implemented for community-dwelling frail elders and to develop a conceptual model to underpin intervention development.
DESIGN: A structured integrative review of relevant literature.
DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, Embase, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Further strategies included searching for policy and clinical documents, grey literature, and hand-searching reference lists. Literature was searched from 1990 until October 2018.
RESULTS: From 3043 potential papers, 42 were included. Twenty-nine were empirical, six expert commentaries, four service improvements, two guidelines and one theoretical. Analysis revealed nine themes: education and training, personal ability, models, recognising triggers, resources, conversations on death and dying, living day to day, personal beliefs and experience, and relationality.
CONCLUSION: Implementing advance care planning for frail elders requires a system-wide approach, including providing relevant resources and clarifying responsibilities. Early engagement is key for frail elders, as is a shift from the current advance care planning model focussed on future ceilings of care to one that promotes living well now alongside planning for the future. The proposed conceptual model can be used as a starting point for professionals, organisations and policymakers looking to improve advance care planning for frail elders.
BACKGROUND: Medical Assistance in Dying, also known as euthanasia or assisted suicide, is expanding internationally. Canada is the first country to permit Nurse Practitioners to provide euthanasia. These developments highlight the need for nurses to reflect upon the moral and ethical issues that euthanasia presents for nursing practice.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the ethical arguments surrounding euthanasia in relationship to nursing practice.
METHODS: Systematic search and narrative review. Nine electronic databases were searched using vocabulary developed from a stage 1 search of Medline and CINAHL. Articles that analysed a focused ethical question related to euthanasia in the context of nursing practice were included. Articles were synthesized to provide an overview of the literature of nursing ethics and euthanasia.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This review was conducted as per established scientific guidelines. We have tried to be fair and respectful to the authors discussed.
FINDINGS: Forty-three articles were identified and arranged inductively into four themes: arguments from the nature of nursing; arguments from ethical principles, concepts and theories; arguments for moral consistency; and arguments from the nature of the social good. Key considerations included nursing's moral ontology, the nurse-patient relationship, potential impact on the profession, ethical principles and theories, moral culpability for acts versus omissions, the role of intention and the nature of the society in which euthanasia would be enacted. In many cases, the same assumptions, values, principles and theories were used to argue both for and against euthanasia.
DISCUSSION: The review identified a relative paucity of literature in light of the expansion of euthanasia internationally. However, the literature provided a fulsome range of positions for nurses to consider as they reflect on their own participation in euthanasia. Many of the arguments reviewed were not nursing-specific, but rather are relevant across healthcare disciplines. Arguments explicitly grounded within the nature of nursing and nurse-patient relationships warrant further exploration.
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness evidence of complementary therapies in people with advanced disease is uncertain, and yet people are still keen to engage in complementary therapy. Insights into people's experiences of complementary therapy in palliative care, the perceived benefits, and how they want it delivered, can inform clinical guidelines and suggest ways to test therapies more appropriately in future evaluations.
AIMS: Explore in people with advanced disease (1) the experiences and perceptions of benefits and harms of aromatherapy, massage, and reflexology and (2) how they would like these therapies delivered.
DESIGN: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Database search terms were related to palliative care, aromatherapy, reflexology and massage. Citations and full texts were reviewed independently against predefined inclusion criteria. Studies were appraised for quality. This review is registered at PROSPERO (22/11/2017 CRD42017081409).
DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL, KoreaMed and ProQuest with a bibliography search to June 2018.
RESULTS: Five qualitative studies in advanced cancer were identified. Three analytical themes were identified: (1) Experience during the therapy (enhanced well-being and escapism), (2) beyond the complementary therapy session (lasting benefits and overall evaluation), and (3) delivery of complementary therapy in palliative care (value of the therapist and delivery of the complementary therapy).
CONCLUSIONS: People with advanced cancer experience benefits from aromatherapy, reflexology and massage including enhanced well-being, respite, and escapism from their disease. Complementary therapy interventions should be developed in consultation with the target population to ensure they are delivered and evaluated, where feasible, as they wish.