BACKGROUND: Caregivers of patients with cancer experience high levels of caregiver-related strain and burden (CGSB). Cancer caregiving is complex and can change dramatically depending on the cancer trajectory. Often, this experience leads to poor health outcomes for the caregiver.
OBJECTIVES: This review appraises the evidence on CGSB published from 2007 to October 2017.
METHODS: 128 interventional studies found in PubMed® and CINAHL® were appraised and categorized based on the Oncology Nursing Society's Putting Evidence Into Practice schema.
FINDINGS: Psychoeducation, supportive care/support interventions, and cognitive behavioral interventions are recommended to decrease CGSB. Caregiver skill training, couples therapy, decision support, mindfulness-based stress reduction, multicomponent interventions, and palliative care are likely to be effective. The evidence is not established for 13 interventions. Despite the proliferation of studies focusing on CGSB, studies with stronger designs and larger samples are needed.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care trials have higher rates of attrition. The MORECare guidance recommends applying classifications of attrition to report attrition to help interpret trial results. The guidance separates attrition into three categories: attrition due to death, illness or at random. The aim of our study is to apply the MORECare classifications on reported attrition rates in trials.
METHODS: A systematic review was conducted and attrition classifications retrospectively applied. Four databases, EMBASE; Medline, CINHAL and PsychINFO, were searched for randomised controlled trials of palliative care populations from 01.01.2010 to 08.10.2016. This systematic review is part of a larger review looking at recruitment to randomised controlled trials in palliative care, from January 1990 to early October 2016. We ran random-effect models with and without moderators and descriptive statistics to calculate rates of missing data.
RESULTS: One hundred nineteen trials showed a total attrition of 29% (95% CI 28 to 30%). We applied the MORECare classifications of attrition to the 91 papers that contained sufficient information. The main reason for attrition was attrition due to death with a weighted mean of 31.6% (SD 27.4) of attrition cases. Attrition due to illness was cited as the reason for 17.6% (SD 24.5) of participants. In 50.8% (SD 26.5) of cases, the attrition was at random. We did not observe significant differences in missing data between total attrition in non-cancer patients (26%; 95% CI 18-34%) and cancer patients (24%; 95% CI 20-29%). There was significantly more missing data in outpatients (29%; 95% CI 22-36%) than inpatients (16%; 95% CI 10-23%). We noted increased attrition in trials with longer durations.
CONCLUSION: Reporting the cause of attrition is useful in helping to understand trial results. Prospective reporting using the MORECare classifications should improve our understanding of future trials.
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations to integrate palliative care into nursing home care, little is known about the most effective ways to meet this goal.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics and effectiveness of nursing home interventions that incorporated multiple palliative care domains (eg, physical aspects of care-symptom management, and ethical aspects-advance care planning).
DESIGN: Systematic review.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library's CENTRAL from inception through January 2019. We included all randomized and nonrandomized trials that compared palliative care to usual care and an active comparator. We assessed the type of intervention, outcomes, and the risk of bias.
RESULTS: We screened 1167 records for eligibility and included 13 articles. Most interventions focused on staff education and training strategies and on implementing a palliative care team. Many interventions integrated advance care planning initiatives into the intervention. We found that palliative care interventions in nursing homes may enhance palliative care practices, including processes to assess and manage pain and symptoms. However, inconsistent outcomes and high or unclear risk of bias among most studies requires results to be interpreted with caution.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Heterogeneity in methodology, findings, and study bias within the existing literature revealed limited evidence for nursing home palliative care interventions. Findings from a small group of diverse clinical trials suggest that interventions enhanced nursing home palliative care and improved symptom assessment and management processes.
BACKGROUND: The General Medical Council expects medical graduates to care for dying patients with skill, clinical judgement and compassion. UK surveys continually demonstrate low confidence and increasing distress amongst junior doctors when providing care to the dying.
AIM: This systematic review aims to determine what has been evidenced within worldwide literature regarding medical undergraduate confidence to care for dying patients.
DESIGN: A systematic electronic search was undertaken. Data extraction included measurements of baseline confidence, associated assessment tools and details of applied educational interventions. Pre/postintervention confidence comparisons were made. Factors influencing confidence levels were explored.
DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO, British Education Index and Cochrane Review databases were accessed, with no restrictions on publication year. Eligible studies included the terms 'medical student', 'confidence' and 'dying', alongside appropriate MeSH headings. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.
RESULTS: Fifteen eligible studies were included, demonstrating a diversity of assessment tools. Student confidence was low in provision of symptom management, family support, and psycho-spiritual support to dying patients. Eight interventional studies demonstrated increased postinterventional confidence. Lack of undergraduate exposure to dying patients and lack of structure within undergraduate palliative care curricula were cited as factors responsible for low confidence.
CONCLUSION: This review clarifies the objective documentation of medical undergraduate confidence to care for the dying. Identifying where teaching fails to prepare graduates for realities in clinical practice will help inform future undergraduate palliative care curriculum planning.
PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019119057.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to synthesize the experiences of health professionals who have experienced grief as a result of a pediatric patient dying.
INTRODUCTION: There has been some research into health professionals' grief experiences, but there has not been a review that synthesizes the findings of these experiences. Other related reviews have focused on prenatal, perinatal or adult deaths or the coping strategies employed by health professionals. This review highlights the complexities of experiences faced by pediatric health professionals.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: Qualitative studies involving pediatric health professionals working in any healthcare setting who had experienced grief from the death of a patient were considered for inclusion. Studies were conducted in any country, at any time and published in English.
METHODS: The search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The search was completed in January 2019. The review followed principles of meta-aggregation in line with the JBI approach. Methodological quality assessment was based on representation of participants' voices and congruence between research methodology and both research question and analysis of data.
RESULTS: Meta-aggregation led to three synthesized findings from 12 qualitative studies that met the inclusion and methodological quality criteria. Studies predominantly included nurses working in a hospital, with sample sizes ranging from six to 25 participants. The synthesized findings were physical, behavioral, psychological or spiritual symptoms; compounding grief; and alleviating grief. Physical, behavioral, psychological, or spiritual symptoms highlighted the various characteristics of grief experiences by health professionals. Compounding grief was the largest synthesized finding and incorporated the various factors that contributed to a poorer experience of grief. Alleviating grief showed the limited identified factors that improved the experience of grief. Methodological quality led to synthesized findings receiving a ConQual rating of low or moderate.
CONCLUSIONS: The synthesized findings from this review highlight the varied reported experience of grief in health professionals. The methodological quality and reporting of studies, however, led to decreased confidence in the synthesized findings and recommendations arising from this review. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the potential for experiencing grief when a patient dies and the compounding and alleviating factors associated with this. Further research could expand participant and language limitations, and improve methodological quality and reporting.
Hiccup is a recognised symptom amongst the palliative care population. It can be debilitating, with significant impact on quality of life. The pathophysiology is poorly understood and the list of aetiological factors is extensive. The current treatment recommendations are based on a small body of evidence and there remains uncertainty regarding optimal management. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence for oral baclofen in the management of hiccups in adult palliative care patients. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library and CINAHL, as well as a hand search and review of the grey literature. Relevant articles were identified using pre-defined eligibility criteria. Quality assessment was guided by the SIGN grading system, CASP, Hawker et al's checklist and Cochrane's risk of bias tool. A narrative approach was used for data synthesis. Four relevant articles were identified; one randomised controlled trial and three case series. This gave a combined total of 22 patients, all of whom benefited from the use of oral baclofen in the treatment of hiccups, with few reports of side effects. The dose ranged from 10mg once only to 20mg TDS, and the duration from 1-24 days. However, the overall quality of the evidence was low. While baclofen is an option in the management of hiccups, it is difficult to make recommendations based on the body of evidence presented in this systematic review. There is a lack of RCTs in this field and further research is warranted.
INTRODUCTION: The optimal dose-fractionation schedule of palliative radiotherapy has been debated in patients with bone metastases. Our objective is to comprehensively compare multiple fraction schedules with single fraction radiotherapy in terms of efficacy and toxicities by performing a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Electronic searches of titles/abstracts of palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases will be performed, using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, clinical trials, American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and European Society of Radiotherapy and Oncology. The primary outcome of interest is the incidence of skeletal-related event following palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases in prospective studies. The risk of bias and quality of evidence will be evaluated based on Cochrane Collaboration's tool and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation in the network meta-analysis. We will conduct subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis regardless of heterogeneity estimates.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will synthesise the evidence regarding dose-fractionation schedule of palliative radiotherapy in patients with bone metastases. We hope the findings from this study will help clinicians and patients select optimum palliative radiotherapy by identifying the optimal dose-fractionation schedule of palliative radiotherapy with the most value in terms of patient-important outcomes. The evidence obtained from network meta-analysis will help to guide head-to-head research in the future. The results will be disseminated through international conference reports and peer-reviewed manuscripts. Ethics review board is not required for this network meta-analysis.
PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019135195.
Background: Palliative care patients, those suffering from at least one chronic lifelong medical condition and hospice care patients, those with a life expectancy less than 6 months, are regularly hospitalised in general internal medicine wards. By means of a clinical case, this review aims to equip the internist with an approach to bleeding in this population. Firstly, practical advice on platelet transfusions will be provided. Secondly, the management of bleeding in site-specific situations will be addressed (from the ENT/pulmonary sphere, gastrointestinal - urogenital tract and cutaneous ulcers). Finally, an algorithm pertaining to the management of catastrophic bleeding is proposed.
Methods: Electronic databases, including EMBASE, Pubmed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library were studied as primary resources, in association with local guidelines, to identify papers exploring platelet transfusions and alternative management of site-specific bleeding in palliative care patients.
Results: Haemorrhagic complications are frequent in palliative care patients in the internal medicine ward. Current guidelines propose a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy. Nonetheless, prophylactic and/or therapeutic transfusion remains a physician-dependent decision. Site-specific therapeutic options are based on expert opinion and case reports. While invasive measures may be pertinent in certain situations, their application must be compatible with patient goals. Catastrophic bleeding requires caregivers' comforting presence; pharmacological management is secondary.
Conclusion: Literature is lacking regarding management of bleeding in the palliative care population hospitalised in an acute medical setting. Recommendations are of limited quality, the majority based on case reports or expert opinion. Further studies, exploring for example the impact on patient quality of life, are desirable to improve the management of this frequently encountered complication.
AIM: To systematically review qualitative studies exploring families' experiences of spiritual care at the end of life in acute hospital settings.
BACKGROUND: Although there is a widespread belief that the consideration of spiritual and religious needs is out-dated in the context of secularism, from a practical perspective patients and families appear to benefit from spiritual support at the end of life.
METHODS: Six key databases, CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, Global Health Library, Web of Science, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), were searched and three reviewers independently extracted the data and coded it into themes and subthemes. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) was used as a reporting framework.
RESULTS: Five main themes emerged: anticipating needs; honouring the family by honouring the patient; personal connection; lack of sensitivity and making space for religious & spiritual practices.
CONCLUSIONS: Families experiencing end of life care in acute hospital settings may benefit from spiritual care. While this can also be considered as fundamental care, understanding this through the lenses of spiritual care allows for the incorporation of religious and spiritual practices that many seek at this time, irrespective of their faith perspectives.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Although hospice care is well established internationally, many families experience end of life care in acute hospital settings. Nurses usually get to know families well during this time, however the demands of the clinical environment place restrictions on family care and the perception of lack of communication, limited support and/or limited sensitively can compound the families' suffering. Consideration of families' spiritual needs can help to support families during this time. Nurses are ideally placed for this and can anticipate and plan for patient and family needs in this regard, or refer to a specialist such as the Health Care Chaplain.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may provide tailored benefits in patients with preset treatment limitations. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of HFNC oxygen in patients with do-not-intubate (DNI) and/or do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of interventional and observational studies. A search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science, from inception to October 15, 2018.
RESULTS: We included six studies evaluating 293 patients. All studies had a high risk of bias. The hospital mortality rates of patients with DNI and/or DNR orders receiving HFNC oxygen were variable and ranged from 40% to 87%. In two before and after studies, the initiation of HFNC oxygen was associated with improved oxygenation and reduced respiratory rates. One comparative study found no difference in dyspnea reduction or morphine doses between patients using HFNC oxygen versus conventional oxygen. No studies evaluated quality of life in survivors or quality of death in nonsurvivors. HFNC was generally well tolerated with few adverse events identified.
CONCLUSIONS: While HFNC oxygen remains a viable treatment option for hospitalized patients who have acute respiratory failure and a DNI and/or DNR order, there is a paucity of high-quality, comparative, effectiveness data to guide the usage of HFNC oxygen compared with other treatments, such as noninvasive ventilation, conventional oxygen, and palliative opioids.
OBJECTIVE: Surrogate decision-makers play an increasingly important role in the lives of older adults who have lost their ability to make decisions. Currently, there is a lack of evidence to support family surrogates in making a variety of decisions. Additionally, a greater understanding of family caregivers' experiences and perspectives toward making surrogate decisions is needed.
METHODS: This study employed a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis of the research evidence using the methodologies of the Joanna Briggs Institute (2014) and Thomas and Harden (2008).
RESULTS: Decisions were classified per three main types: intensive care treatment, end-of-life treatment, and placement. Six themes were identified concerning surrogates' experiences: struggle and reluctance, seeking reassurance, communication with healthcare professionals, family support, older adults' wishes, and negative impact.
CONCLUSION: Family surrogates often lack adequate preparation and education regarding decision-making. Quality communication between surrogates and healthcare providers helps reduce the anxiety and guilt experienced when making surrogate decisions. Further research is required to elucidate these experiences with more cultural and racial nuances.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This review informs healthcare providers' awareness of the challenges faced by surrogates and fosters improved surrogate decision-making experiences.
OBJECTIVES: To review literature relating to evidence, context and facilitation to describe knowledge translation in paediatric palliative care. Paediatric palliative care requires competences including both paediatric specialists as well as services that are developed for this purpose, and there is a need to facilitate paediatric palliative care knowledge translation. Promoting Action on Research Implementation in the Health Services (PARiHS) is a framework for knowledge translation, which highlights the relationships between evidence, context and facilitation. PARiHS framework has been revised and updated in a new version called i-PARiHS.
METHODS: The electronic databases AgeLine, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus were searched. Papers included were limited to English and Swedish publications and restricted to publications dated between 1993 and August 2019. All types of observational and experimental studies using any research design were included.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-eight articles were included and there was a common vision about how and when palliative care should be offered to children. The i-PARiHS was used as a lens to describe the knowledge translation in paediatric palliative care. Symptom relief was the most commonly described evidence-based strategy, and the hospital environment was the most commonly described context. Different types of education were the most commonly used strategies to facilitate knowledge translation. The results mainly focused on increasing knowledge of palliative care in paediatric care. To sum up, the results report strategies to achieve knowledge translation of paediatric palliative care, and these can be interpreted as a guideline for how this process can be facilitated.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018100663.
CONTEXT: A central approach of palliative care has been to provide holistic care for people who are dying, terminally ill or facing life-limiting illnesses while neither hastening nor postponing death. Assisted dying laws allow eligible individuals to receive medically administered or self-administered medication from a health provider to end their life. The implementation of these laws in a growing number of jurisdictions therefore poses certain challenges for palliative care.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the research literature about the relationship of assisted dying with palliative care, in countries where it is lawful.
METHODS: A five-stage scoping review process was adapted from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data sources searched through October 2018 were MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, and ProQuest dissertations and theses, with additional material identified through hand searching. Research studies of any design were included, but editorials or opinion articles were excluded.
RESULTS: After reviewing 5778 references from searches, 105 were subject to full-text review. 16 studies were included: from Belgium (4), Canada (1), Switzerland (2) and the United States (9). We found the relationship between assisted dying and palliative care practices in these locations took varied and sometimes combined forms: supportive, neutral, coexisting, not mutually exclusive, integrated, synergistic, cooperative, collaborative, opposed, ambivalent and conflicted.
CONCLUSION: The studies in this review cast only partial light on challenges faced by palliative care when assisted dying is legal. There is pressing need for more research on the involvement of palliative care in the developing practices of assisted dying, across a growing number of jurisdictions.
The demand for high-quality end-of-life care is rising. Frequently evidenced concerns about the provision of end-of-life in care homes relate to inter-disciplinary communication and engagement in advance care planning. A number of interventions employing different mechanisms have been designed to address these issues. Therefore, the aim of this systematic critical realist review was to describe and explain the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve end-of-life care in care homes. Electronic searches were conducted in ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychINFO, and CINAHL from January 2000 to August 2018. Forty one studies were included in the review. While most of the evidence identified in this review was not strong, there was evidence to suggest that education and inter-professional collaboration can be effective intervention mechanisms for improving end-of-life care in care homes. High staff turnover was a significant contextual mechanism impacting on the sustainability of interventions. In terms of human agency, it is important to note a consistent finding related to the dedication and enthusiasm of care home staff who deliver end-of-life care.
BACKGROUND: Palliative care aims to improve quality of life by relieving physical, emotional, and spiritual suffering. Health system planning can be informed by evaluating cost and effectiveness of health care delivery, including palliative care.
AIM: The objectives of this article were to describe and critically appraise economic evaluations of palliative care models and to identify cost-effective models in improving patient-centered outcomes.
DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and registered our protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42016053973).
DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of nine medical and economic databases was conducted and extended with reference scanning and gray literature. Methodological quality was assessed using the Drummond checklist.
RESULTS: We identified 12,632 articles and 5 were included. We included two modeling studies from the United States and England, and three economic evaluations from England, Australia, and Italy. Two studies compared home-based palliative care models to usual care, and one compared home-based palliative care to no care. Effectiveness outcomes included hospital readmission prevented, days at home, and palliative care symptom severity. All studies concluded that palliative care was cost-effective compared to usual care. The methodological quality was good overall, but three out of five studies were based on small sample sizes.
CONCLUSION: Applicability and generalizability of evidence is uncertain due to small sample sizes, short duration, and limited modeling of costs and effects. Further economic evaluations with larger sample sizes are needed, inclusive of the diversity and complexity of palliative care populations and using patient-centered outcomes.
Objectives: Prevalence rates of death by euthanasia (EUT) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have increased among older adults, and public debates on these practices are still taking place. In this context, it seemed important to conduct a systematic review of the predictors (demographic, physical health, psychological, social, quality of life, religious, or existential) associated with attitudes toward, wishes and requests for, as well as death by EUT/PAS among individuals aged 60 years and over.
Method: The search for quantitative studies in PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases was conducted three times from February 2016 until April 2018. Articles of probable relevance (n = 327) were assessed for eligibility. Studies that only presented descriptive data (n = 306) were excluded.
Results: This review identified 21 studies with predictive analyses, but in only 4 did older adults face actual end-of-life decisions. Most studies (17) investigated attitudes toward EUT/PAS (9 through hypothetical scenarios). Younger age, lower religiosity, higher education, and higher socio-economic status were the most consistent predictors of endorsement of EUT/PAS. Findings were heterogeneous with regard to physical health, psychological, and social factors. Findings were difficult to compare across studies because of the variety of sample characteristics and outcomes measures.
Conclusion: Future studies should adopt common and explicit definitions of EUT/PAS, as well as research designs (e.g. mixed longitudinal) that allow for better consideration of personal, social, and cultural factors, and their interplay, on EUT/PAS decisions.
BACKGROUND: Resilience is a multidimensional construct that explains why people facing the consequences of adversity and stress can have a positive outcome, emphasizing adjustment to experiences that are perceived as threatening.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the construct of resilience and associated variables in caregivers of patients with chronic, advanced illness and at the end of life.
METHODS: The review included studies published between January 2009 and January 2019, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guide reporting. The Medline, ScienceDirect, HINARI, PsychINFO, and SciELO databases were used for bibliographic exploration to identify research studies that examined the impact of resilience on adaptation and overall well-being in caregivers of patients with chronic and advanced illness.
RESULTS: A total of 23 quantitative and qualitative studies were identified whose aim was to describe the role of resilience in adaptation and coping in caregivers. In these studies, resilience was associated with a positive impact on the quality of life and emotional distress. Communication and social support increase resilient coping strategies. In most selected articles, the sampling strategy used was convenience sampling. Data collection used evaluation scales related to resilience and associated variables for quantitative studies, and semistructured interviews were used for qualitative studies.
CONCLUSION: Promoting a resilient coping style in caregivers reduces the distress that normally results from illness-related changes in the biopsychosocial and spiritual dimensions. A resilient coping style can diminish the risk of stress and burden, and promote adaptation in the caregiver.
PURPOSE: Exposure to end-of-life and chronic illness on a daily basis may put palliative healthcare professionals' well-being at risk. Resilience may represent a protective factor against stressful and demanding challenges. Therefore, the aim is to systematically review the quantitative studies on resilience in healthcare professionals providing palliative care to adult patients.
METHODS: A literature search on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases was performed. The review process has followed the international PRISMA statement guidelines.
RESULTS: At the initial search, a total of 381 records were identified. Twelve articles were assessed for eligibility and, finally, 6 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Of these, four researches were observational and two interventional pilot studies. From the systematic synthesis, palliative care providers' resilience revealed to be related to other psychological constructs, including secondary traumatic stress, vicarious posttraumatic growth, death anxiety, burnout, compassion satisfaction, hope and perspective taking.
CONCLUSIONS: The current systematic review reported informative data leading to consider resilience as a process modulator and facilitator among palliative care professionals. A model on palliative healthcare providers' experience and the role of resilience was proposed. Further studies may lead to its validation and implementation in assessment and intervention contributing to foster palliative healthcare professionals' well-being.
Background: Dignity is a vitally important aspect of the lives of advanced cancer patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of dignity therapy in this patient population.
Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing dignity therapy versus standard care for patients with advanced cancer in five comprehensive databases (March 2019), two clinical trial registries and one gray literature database (August 2019). The quality of the studies was assessed using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Handbook Version 5.1.0. We used GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan version 5.3. Outcomes of interest included anxiety, depression, dignity-related distress and quality of life (QoL).
Results: Ten trials evaluating 904 patients (control, 449; experimental, 455) were identified. Six trials included patients with different types of advanced cancer, and four trials included patients with a single advanced cancer (lung cancer [20%], breast cancer [10%], and hepatocellular carcinoma [10%]). Compared with the standard care, dignity therapy decreased the score of anxiety, depression, and dignity-related distress of the advanced cancer patients (SMD = -1.07, 95% CI: [-1.57, -0.58], p < .05; SMD = -1.31, 95% CI: [-1.92, -0.70], p < .05; MD = -7.30, 95% CI: [- 12.04, - 2.56], p < .05). In addition, no significant differences were found in the patient's QoL (p > .05).
Conclusion: Very low certainty evidence demonstrated that dignity therapy might be a promising treatment, especially in reducing anxiety and depression in advanced cancer patients.
Despite many efforts made by health organisations to deliver effective end-of-life care to patients with dementia, research indicates that palliative care is predominantly aimed at patients with terminal cancer, and that patients with dementia face challenges in accessing end-of-life care. This article explores the views of health professionals on providing palliative care to those patients diagnosed with dementia within the community setting. A systematic review of seven qualitative studies was performed to identify the best available evidence. The findings show that effective palliative care for patients with dementia continues being affected by many barriers and challenges. Good practice seems to be inconsistent and fragmented throughout the UK and European countries, and many health professionals are faced with difficulties associated with services and financial implications, training and education, staff support, communication, family support and dementia care.