Les infirmières prennent soin des patients au quotidien mais aussi lorsque la mort survient. Elles réalisent alors une toilette mortuaire qui marque la fin de la prise en charge et témoigne du respect de l'équipe soignante envers la personne défunte. Au-delà des aspects techniques, chaque infirmière se confronte à sa propre part d'humanité dans la réalisation de ce soin. La crise sanitaire liée à la Covid-19 a soumis les équipes à rude épreuve sur ce point.
Nursing students may feel unprepared to manage the care of dying individuals and may experience anxiety and fear related to death and dying. Preparing nursing students for this situation can help them provide quality care to dying patients. This study aimed to examine the end-of-life care values and behaviors and death attitudes of senior nursing students. In examining these variables, the Values and Behaviors of Intensive Care Nurses for End-of-Life Instrument and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised Scale were used. It was found that the students developed positive attitudes and behavior towards end-of-life care, and that they believed death to be a natural part of life and there is life after death. Students who felt that the information they received during their education was partially sufficient were more likely to have negative death attitudes. It can be recommended that teaching strategies in the education of the nursing students be developed.
Objectives: Positive attitudes towards end-of-life care are essential among nursing students to adequately support terminally ill patients and enable students to feel confident about providing end-of-life care. This study aimed to determine nursing students’ attitudes towards caring for terminally ill patients, as well as the associations between these attitudes and year of study, exposure to terminally ill people, self-perceived nursing skills and subjective impact of instruction.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: A health sciences school in Switzerland.
articipants: All preparatory students, first-year nursing students and third-year nursing students were invited to participate; 178 agreed to participate.
Primary outcome measure: Attitudes towards terminally ill patients were assessed using the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale, Form B (FATCOD, Form B), as the primary outcome. Secondary measures were gender, age, year of study, number of terminally ill persons encountered, self-perceived palliative care nursing skills and subjective impact of instruction.
Results: Mean FATCOD, Form B score was 117.7 (SD: 9.8, median: 118.0). Better attitudes towards terminally ill patients were significantly associated with being aged 24–26 years (ß=6.97, 95% CI 2.00 to 11.95, p=0.006), year of study (ß=3.47, 95% CI 1.69 to 5.25, p<0.001), professional encounters with terminally ill patients (ß=3.59, 95% CI 2.23 to 4.95, p<0.001) and self-perceived palliative care nursing competence (ß=1.23, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.04; p=0.003). In the multivariate analysis, professionally encountering terminally ill patients remained significant (ß=3.00; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.57; p<0.001).
Conclusions: Nursing students’ attitudes towards caring for terminally ill patients were positive and improved as their year of study progressed. Professional exposure to terminally ill patients was the strongest factor, followed by private encounters, self-perceived palliative care nursing skills, year of study and age.
This study aimed to investigate actual situations of nursing activities in supporting the transition to homecare settings for end-stage cancer patients and to determine factors related to executing such nursing activities from the perspectives of communication skills and interprofessional collaboration. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 513 nurses who worked at designated cancer care hospitals in Japan. A total of 318 valid responses were obtained (valid response rate: 62.0%). Scores for nursing activities were higher for the following items: sharing information regarding the transition to homecare settings, intentionally engaging with patients after their medical conditions were explained, providing care for families, and understanding a patient's will about the transition to homecare settings. On the other hand, scores were lower for items that were related to guiding juniors and self-improvement. A multiple regression analysis was performed with nursing activities as the dependent variable. 8 factors related to nursing activities were determined: experience in supporting the transition to homecare settings as a primary nurse, contribution to a team (Team Approach Assessment Scale [TAAS]), years of nursing experience, function of a team (TAAS), regulation of interpersonal relationship (ENDCOREs communication skills scale), experience of participation in homecare nursing education or seminars, verbal communication skills for good communication (End-of-life Care Nurses’ Communication Skills scale), and educational background. Future challenges include developing an educational program based on the results of the present study and promoting educational intervention studies.
BACKGROUND: Nurses are the largest regulated group of healthcare professionals involved in palliative care. In 2004, a taskforce of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) launched the 'Guide for development of palliative nurse education in Europe' (hereinafter, the EAPC 2004 Guide). No systematic evaluation of its impact in the development of palliative care education was undertaken.
AIMS: To describe current undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education across Europe; to identify the roles that nurses with different palliative care educational levels have in palliative care; and to assess the uptake of the EAPC 2004 Guide in the development of palliative care nursing in Europe.
DESIGN: Descriptive research involving an online survey among nursing experts, and the consultation of national representatives.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 135 nurses (52% response rate) from 25 countries completed the online survey; representatives from 16 countries were consulted.
RESULTS: In 14 (56%) countries, palliative care was not identified as a mandatory subject within undergraduate nursing education. The EAPC 2004 Guide is widely known and was/is being used in many countries to promote palliative care nursing education. Large variations were found across and within country responses.
CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care nursing education varies largely in Europe. The wide awareness and use of the EAPC 2004 Guide show how policy measures can influence the development of palliative care education. Recommendations are built and focus on both fostering the use of this guide and implementing policy measures to ensure that palliative care nursing is recognised and certified as a specialty in all European countries.
The purpose of this integrative review was to appraise the qualitative and quantitative literature for community-level health behavior theory application to palliative care nursing to identify their use and future research implications. To date, there has not been an integrative review of the nursing studies that have used community-level health behavior theory to guide palliative care nursing research. Despite the availability of high-quality care, there continues to be underuse of resources. An integrative review on community-level theory application may provide a more holistic understanding of previous interventions to frame future interventions and research needs. The review was guided by the 5-step framework of Whittemore and Knafl. Relevant literature was searched and appraised. Seven different community-level health behavior theories were found with applications to palliative care nursing, and 16 studies using these theories were identified for discussion. Community-Based Participatory Research was the most used theory. Community-level health behavior theories such as Community-Based Participatory Research have helped build partnerships and activate community resources such as capacity, engagement, and diversity through culturally sensitive training interventions. Further research using these theories in palliative care nursing can realize positive outcomes, particularly in low-income rural areas.
Health Science students in Spain and Bolivia should be trained in the management of the processes of death and dying of patients. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of training, self-perceived safety and preferences in relation to the care of terminal and non-terminal patients. It was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study with students of Medicine, Nursing and Physiotherapy in Spain and Bolivia. The following variables were evaluated: care preparation and emotional preparation to caring for terminally ill and non-terminally ill patients, the Death Attitude Profile Revised (PAM-R) and the Bugen Scale for Facing Death. The self-perceived preparation of students for caring for terminally ill patients can be considered "fair" (mean 2.15, SD 0.756), and this was also the case for their perceived emotional preparation (mean 2.19, SD 0.827). In contrast, the score obtained for their preparedness for treating non-terminal patients was higher (mean 2.99 and 3.16, respectively). Working with terminally ill patients, including terminal or geriatric cancer patients, was the least preferred option among future health professionals. The results obtained show a limited preference for end-of-life care and treatment, highlighting a lack of preparation and motivation among health science students in Spain and Bolivia for working with these patients.
Background: One of the most difficult and stressful tasks faced by health science students is having to cope with death and dying due to the emotional burden of the same. Furthermore, the moral, ethical and professional values of future health professionals are influenced by the cultures where they live.
Purpose: This study sought to compare and analyze the perception on end of life among a sample of health science students in Spain and Bolivia.
Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-centric study. The total sample (548 students) was comprised of three groups: medical, nursing and physiotherapy students, of whom 245 were from Bolivia, and 303 were Spanish students. The measurement instruments used were the Bugen’s Coping with Death Scale and the Death Self-Efficacy Scale by Robbins.
Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between Spanish and Bolivian students (t (546) = - 0.248, p = 0.804) using the Bugen scale. This implies that there are no differences between the perception of both groups of students and that both groups use similar strategies to cope with death. Additionally, the beliefs and attitudes of both groups were similar, with Bolivian students presenting a trend towards improved scores. No differences were found between Spain and Bolivia in the results obtained on the Robbins scale, with students from both countries displaying similar skills and capabilities for facing death.
Conclusions: The beliefs on death of health science students from Spain and Bolivia were not affected by the respective cultures, type of degree studied, students’ age, or the country of origin, however, we found that students in Bolivia value death as something more natural than their Spanish counterparts.
To appropriately prepare students for this topic, education on coping with death and dying must be included within the university curriculum.
Background: High-fidelity simulation is being considered as a suitable environment for imparting the skills needed to deal with end-of-life (EOL) situations. The objective was to evaluate an EOL simulation project that introduced communication skills to nursing students who had not yet begun their training in real healthcare environments.
Methods: A sequential approach was used. The "questionnaire for the evaluation of the end-of-life project" was employed.
Results: A total of 130 students participated. Increasing the time spent in high-fidelity simulation significantly favored the exploration of feelings and fears regarding EOL (t = -2.37, p = 0.019), encouraged dialogue (t = -2.23, p = 0.028) and increased the acquisition of communication skills (t = -2.32, p = 0.022).
Conclusions: High-fidelity simulation promotes communication skills related to EOL in novice nursing students.
There are few formal training opportunities that exist for RNs interested in the rapidly growing field of hospice and palliative care. To address this, the curriculum for a nurse residency program was developed and delivered to 12 nurses over 1 year. The nurse residents, as well as their clinical supervisors and interprofessional colleagues, were surveyed to obtain feedback on the overall program. Skill acquisition of the nurses was also assessed. The results indicate that the nurse residents had increased levels of confidence in caring for dying patients, communication with other clinicians, and delegation and management of treatment teams and families. According to supervisors and colleagues, strengths of the program included support for new nurses, integration of the interprofessional team, and solid preparation for new hospice nurses. These findings provide nursing educators and administrators with needed insight into the development and evaluation of an RN residency program in hospice and palliative care.
AIMS: Develop and psychometrically assess the Palliative Nursing Care Quality Scale (PNCQS, escala de Calidad del Cuidado Enfermero Paliativo, CCEP, in Spanish). An interview-based qualitative study (1) was conducted to verify construct validity evidence, with psychometric properties of reliability and validity verified by two quantitative studies (2 & 3).
DESIGN: Quantitative instrumental, correlational, and cross-sectional study.
METHODS: Study 1 was carried out with 10 key informants. For Study 2, a sample of 103 nursing professionals was obtained and 176 nurses from palliative care resources in Spain participated in Study 3. Data were collected between May 2017 - May 2018.
RESULTS: Evidence of adequate reliability (internal consistency) and validity was found. The confirmatory factor model yielded a single latent factor for the 20 items, with adequate goodness-of-fit indices. The convergent validity data showed that the highest correlations were with the Dedication subscale of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Personal Growth subscale of Psychological Well-being, with values of 0.35 and 0.34, respectively (p < 0.01 in both cases).
CONCLUSION: The scale shows good psychometric properties, with high internal consistency and evidence of internal and convergent validity.
IMPACT: Proposing a valuable instrument which identifies good nursing in different areas of palliative care while also establishing quality indicators to guide nursing practice entails the recognition of autonomy in care. The resulting work tool can be used to systematize the assessment of nursing care in a process of open and continuous improvement.
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the strategies implemented by nurses to reconfigure palliative oncological care due to the hospital accreditation process in Hospital do Câncer IV (Hospital of Cancer IV).
METHOD: qualitative research of historical-social approach, whose direct sources in use were written documents and four spoken accounts.
RESULTS: implemented strategies were: creation of the Nursing Division; nursing staff management; consolidation of Continuing Education sector; creation of Internal Nursing Bylaws through development of norms and routines; meetings; discussion of clinical cases; training and classes; creation of Núcleo de Assistência de Enfermagem (Nursing Assistance Core); creation of a tumoral and ostomy wound-dressing ambulatory; and organization of the 5th Vital Sign Forum. Final considerations: nurses, supported by an alliance with the institution directors, implemented effective strategies and reached significant advancement. As they took part in this endeavor, they became legitimate spokespeople of an authorized discourse in the field of oncological nursing care in Brazil.
The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' experiences with death and terminal patients during clinical education. A secondary analysis of qualitative data that were collected through 11 focus group interviews with nursing students was performed. Data obtained from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. There were a total of 9 themes across 3 contexts. Data were grouped under the following themes: feelings experienced when encountering death for the first time, reactions to the first encounter with death, factors affecting the reactions to death, involvement in terminal patient care, being informed about the physical process that terminal patients are going through, students' approach toward terminal patients and their relatives, health professionals' approach toward terminal/dying patients/their relatives, changes in the ideas about death, and changes in the ideas about terminal/dying patients. The study shows a lack of guidance on the part of teachers who also avoid patients and families who are considered terminally ill.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging healthcare systems worldwide, none more so than critical and intensive care settings. Significant attention has been paid to the capacity of Australian intensive care unit (ICUs) to respond to a COVID-19 surge, particularly in relation to beds, ventilators, staffing, personal protective equipment, and unparalleled increase in deaths in ICUs associated with COVID-19 seen internationally. While death is not uncommon in critical care, the international experience demonstrates that restrictions to family presence at the end of life result in significant distress for families and clinicians. As a result, the Australian College of Critical Care Nurses and the Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control supported the development of a position statement to provide critical care nurses with specific guidance and recommendations for practice for this emerging priority area. Where possible, position statements are founded on high-quality evidence. However, the short time period since the first recognition of a cluster of pneumonia-like cases in China in January, 2020, meant that an integrative approach was required to expedite timely development of this position statement in preparation for a COVID-19 surge in Australia. This position statement is intended to provide practical guidance to critical care nurses in facilitating next-of-kin presence for patients dying from COVID-19 in the ICU.
This study aimed to analyze the schools that teach ethical and legal aspects within the subject of palliative care in the degrees of medicine and nursing in Spain.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive Analysis of the palliative care subject and their ethical and legal curricular competencies in the Spanish Nursing and Physicians undergraduate. The training received in legal ethical aspects related to palliative care was compared with the criteria established by the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC).
DATA SOURCES: The National Conference of Nursing Deans, The National Conference of Spanish Medical Faculty Deans and The Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities databases were searched.
RESULTS: Twenty-one universities have an undergraduate in medicine with palliative care in their curricular training explicitly. The degree in nursing is present in fifty-six universities, palliative care is present in 62.5% of the cases. The degrees of nursing and medicine receive approximately the same level of training in ethical and legal aspects of palliative care.
CONCLUSION: The specific training received in ethical and legal issues of palliative care must be improved in medical and nursing to meet the EAPC levels.
Les soins palliatifs demandent de plus en plus de compétences médicales, soignantes, humaines et éthiques, afin d’asseoir leur légitimité dans des domaines de plus en plus pointus de la médecine – réanimation, néonatalogie, cancérologie, gériatrie – ainsi que dans la diversité des prises en charge, y compris au domicile ou en EPHAD.
Dans ce contexte de développement des formations et d’élargissement des champs de compétences de la pratique palliative, cette 5e édition du manuel offre :
-les indispensables connaissances thérapeutiques ;
-les outils, à destination des professionnels en vue d’acquérir une compétence clinique pour la rencontre et l’accompagnement humain, psychique et relationnelle de la personne malade ;
-une contextualisation de la pratique des soins palliatifs dans leur dimension sociale, sanitaire et politique ;
-des jalons pédagogiques pour le développement des soins palliatifs dans leur dimension pédagogique et de recherche.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents unique challenges to those who work with the seriously ill population, including both health care providers and the family caregivers providing unpaid care. We rely on this lay workforce as health care routinely transitions care to the home, and now more than ever, we are depending on them in the current pandemic. As palliative care and other health care providers become overwhelmed with patients critically ill with COVID-19, and routine care becomes delayed, we have a charge to recognize and work with family caregivers. Our commentary provides rationale for the need to focus on family caregivers and key considerations for how to include them in pandemic clinical decision making.
The purpose of this article is to describe the lessons learned in the course of a 5-year research study on a palliative care intervention for persons on a Phase 1 clinical trial. Patients who are participating in Phase 1 trials and the families who care for them may be especially vulnerable and require special attention. The patients are generally experiencing the effects of advanced disease, and they also may soon experience unknown side effects, intense treatment regimens, and the emotional stress of an uncertain future as a result of clinical trial participation. Oncology nurses in all roles including clinical trials/research nurses, clinicians, educators, and advanced practice registered nurses play a critical role in addressing the quality-of-life concerns in this population. Palliative care can provide better symptom control and information on treatment options and facilitate a better understanding of patient/family goals. Attending to these factors can ultimately mean improved survival for the advanced cancer patient, and support for these patients can assist in advancing the field of oncology as these investigational therapies hold the promise for enhancing survival.