Although male suicide has received research attention, the gendered experiences of men bereaved by male suicide are poorly understood. Addressing this knowledge gap, we share findings drawn from a photovoice study of Canadian-based men who had lost a male friend, partner, or family member to suicide. Two categories depicting the men's overall account of the suicide were inductively derived: (a) unforeseen suicide and (b) rationalized suicide. The "unforeseen suicides" referred to deaths that occurred without warning wherein participants spoke to tensions between having no idea that the deceased was at risk while reflecting on what they might have done to prevent the suicide. In contrast, "rationalized suicides" detailed an array of preexisting risk factors including mental illness and/or substance overuse to discuss cause-effect scenarios. Commonalities in unforeseen and rationalized suicides are discussed in the overarching theme, "managing emotions" whereby participants distanced themselves, but also drew meaning from the suicide.
Head and neck cancer affects vital functions of speech, swallowing, breathing, and appearance. Overall survival remains poor and symptom burden is high for both patients with incurable disease at the end of life and for long-term survivors. Early and concurrent palliative care helps guide treatment decision making and support quality of life during and after treatment. Both narrative competence and directive counsel can affect the concordance of patient goals and tolerance of treatment and outcomes.
Several reports have indicated that grief and mental health outcomes of people bereaved by suicide vary by their relationship to the deceased. Parents who have lost offspring experience higher levels of distress than those with other relationships to the deceased. However, there are limited studies investigating the experience of parental bereavement by suicide, and further research is needed. The present study aimed to clarify the differences in grief reactions between bereaved parents and those with other relationships to the deceased in Japan and explore a statistical model of adaptation to the loss. In total, 105 bereaved participants completed a questionnaire covering grief reaction, meaning reconstruction, mental health, social context, and demographic variables. Parents scored higher on several grief reaction items and lower in sense-making than those with other relationships. In addition, path analysis showed that sense-making acted as a moderator in the experience of loss of offspring and grief reaction.
This research aimed to explore the role of workplace responses in psychologists’ adaptation to client suicides. Participants were 178 psychologists who completed an online self-report questionnaire which included both open and closed questions yielding qualitative and quantitative data. Fifty-six (31.5%) participants reported one or more client suicides. Mixed results were found in terms of perceived support from the workplace following a client suicide. Psychologists reported a need for more open communication in the workplace, peer supports, space to grieve, as well as opportunities to engage in a learning process. The findings have important implications for research and for understanding the role of the workplace postvention. It also raises the need for external support to be accessible for psychologists working in private practice.
This article presents qualitative data to explore the experience of farming family members faced with accidental or suicide death and understand how this is experienced within the farming context. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 25 members of Australian farming families bereaved by suicide or accidental death. Qualitative data was thematically analyzed. Three interconnected themes were identified: acceptance of risk, normalization of death, pragmatic behavior patterns and connection to place. Bereavement and reconstruction of meaning following suicide or accidental death for farming families is influenced by the cultural, social, geographical, and psychological contexts of farming families. This article challenges traditional conceptions of suicide and accidental death as necessarily experienced as “violent” or “traumatic,” bereavement as experienced similarly across western cultures, and the reaction to suicide or accidental death as one that challenges people’s understanding of their world and leaves them struggling to find a reason why the death occurred.
Background: Many organizations provide support to people affected by suicide-related behavior, for example, those bereaved by suicide, those who have attempted suicide, and their informal carers. However, evidence regarding how well used, and acceptable, these resources are is lacking. Aims: To investigate the views about and experiences with support and resources of people with lived experience of suicide bereavement, suicide attempt, or caring.
Method: The study was conducted in Queensland, Australia. In total, 175 people completed the survey. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 22.
Results: Participants found resources helpful and user-friendly, but many had never searched for support, did not know it was available, or felt no better after using it. Respondents who had attempted suicide were more likely to look for resources, but less likely to feel better after using them and endorsed more barriers to accessing support.
Limitations: This study used a convenience sample of individuals living in Queensland, was biased toward help-seeking populations, and included mostly women, and therefore it was not representative.
Conclusion: Support and resources that are more flexible and accessible, and are offered in a more proactive manner could improve the user experiences of people affected by suicide-related behavior.
Background: Bereavement is associated with impaired mental health, increases in adverse health behaviors, and heightened risk of suicidal ideation, attempts, and death by suicide. The purpose of this literature review was to explore associations between cause of death and suicidal thoughts among bereaved individuals. Our aim was to compare incidence of suicidal ideation by cause of death and identify gaps in this literature to guide future research and clinical intervention.
Methods: PRISMA-P guidelines were used to structure an electronic literature search in the PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases. The search focused on English language studies that were published before February 2019 and sought to compare rates of suicidal ideation among bereaved people who lost a loved one to suicide, accidental overdose, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDs.
Results: Ten articles were identified with suicide as cause of death, zero articles for accidental overdose, zero articles for cardiovascular disease, eight articles for cancer, one article for dementia, and one article for HIV/AIDs. Given the limited number of articles generated by our search, a formal meta-analysis was not appropriate. However, a comparison of results did suggest that suicide bereavement was associated with the highest rates of suicide ideation (14.1% to 49%). Stigma, isolation, avoidance behaviors, and psychological distress were associated with suicidal thoughts among bereaved individuals, regardless of the deceased's cause of death.
Conclusions: Findings of this literature search revealed significant gaps in the literature, especially regarding thoughts of suicide in bereaved survivors of accidental overdose and cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that multiple causes of death are associated with suicidal ideation in bereavement, but that suicide bereavement may be the cause of death associated with the highest risk of suicidal ideation. More research is needed to understand the ways in which cause of death influences prevalence, risk, and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts among bereaved individuals.
People bereaved by suicide have an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt, yet report receiving less support than people bereaved by other sudden deaths. Reductions in support may contribute to suicide risk, yet their nature is unclear. We explored the impact of suicide bereavement on the interpersonal relationships of young adults in the UK using an online survey to collect qualitative data. We conducted thematic analysis of free-text responses from 499 adults to questions capturing the impact of bereavement on relationships with partners, close friends, close family, extended family, and other contacts. We identified four main themes describing the changes in relationships following the suicide: (1) Social discomfort over the death (stigma and taboo; painfulness for self or others to discuss; socially prescribed grief reactions); (2) social withdrawal (loss of social confidence; withdrawal as a coping mechanism); (3) shared bereavement experience creating closeness and avoidance; (4) attachments influenced by fear of further losses (overprotectiveness towards others; avoiding attachments as protective). These findings contribute to understanding deficits in support and pathways to suicidality after suicide bereavement. Such disrupted attachments add to the burden of grief and could be addressed by public education on how to support those bereaved by suicide.
Researchers have yet to explore suicide survivors activities in social organizations, which was the present purpose. I studied an Israeli organization, Path to Life, by interviewing 16 members, attending 11 events, and examining media, online, and print information. Although mainly comprised of activists whose loss occurred in civilian circumstances, frame analysis revealed that the organization emphasizes connections between suicide and esteemed military-related death. By relying on a legitimate model of dealing with death, the activists provided meaning to suicide and promoted a sociocultural change through drawing attention to a silenced death, upgrading the suicide victims' status, and enfranchising survivors' grief.
To explore possible distinctive features of online memorials for youth suicides, amid concerns about glorification, we compared public Facebook memorials for suicides and road traffic accident deaths, using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software. People who posted on memorial sites wrote at greater length about suicides, using longer words and more quotation marks. Words suggesting causation and achievement were more prevalent in suicide memorials. Thematic content for the two types of death was more similar than different. Suicide memorial posts had more tentative words, non-fluencies, and question marks, suggesting that people were struggling to make sense of these deaths.
This is a secondary analysis of three qualitative studies about MAiD in which researchers asked about the differences between suicide and MAiD. In all, researchers interviewed 52 Canadians; 7 were people who had requested MAiD and had been found ineligible, 6 were MAiD providers and 39 were socially and economically marginalized. The overwhelming response was that MAiD is better than suicide in the context of suffering at the end of life. Whereas these people perceived suicide as uncertain, difficult, and something that was usually done alone and without support, they thought MAiD was certain, painless, and more socially acceptable.
Efforts to clarify suicide terminology fail to address nuances in suicide-related communication, often relying on poorly-defined terms or implying communication exists primarily as manipulation. In the present paper, we review examples from existing literature and explore how personal suicide-related communication differs from prevention and exposure communication. We also separate definitions for five common types of personal-suicide-related communication: (a) suicide-related disclosure, (b) suicide-related notification, (c) unintended suicide-related communication, (d) coerced suicide-related communication, and (e) conditional suicide-related communication. Finally, we provide specific ways in which standardized definitions can enhance both research and clinical efforts in the future.
The practice whereby terminally ill patients choose to end their own lives painlessly by ingesting a drug prescribed by a physician has commonly been referred to as physician-assisted suicide. There is, however, a strong trend forming that seeks to deny that this act should properly be termed suicide. The purpose of this paper is to examine and reject the view that the term suicide should be abandoned in reference to what has been called physician-assisted suicide. I argue that there are no good conceptual or philosophical reasons to avoid the suicide label. I contend that intending one's death is essential to the nature of suicide, and this intention is normally required on the part of the terminally ill patient when she knowingly takes a life-ending drug. Additionally, the analysis shows that any plausible strategy that avoids the term suicide is counteracted by the way in which advocates of the practice want to make it legal.
Grief, death, bereavement, and loss do not discriminate based on gender identity or sexual orientation. Limited attention has been given to the bereaved partners of transgender and gender non-conforming persons (TGNC). Despite recent efforts to protect the rights of TGNC persons, the death of a TGNC partner is often complicated, marked by family members and friends who might never have known or refused to acknowledge the deceased in his, her, or their preferred gender. The present study adopted a single case study design to examine the death of a TGNC spouse through the unique lens of a bereaved partner.
An advance care directive (ACD) is a written expression of a person's preferences in relation to health care, which can appoint a trusted substitute decision-maker, describe personal values, and make explicit decisions consenting to, or refusing, certain treatments. When a person with a directive refusing life-sustaining treatments attempts suicide, opinions are divided as to the degree to which health care staff are bound by such a directive. In this section, I will provide an example of a patient who presents to hospital after attempting suicide who has a valid ACD refusing life-sustaining treatment. I will then describe the legislation relevant to ACDs in Victoria, Australia and ethical arguments relating to the application of an ACD in this context. I will present a decision-making algorithm for health care staff faced with the difficult decisions arising from such a presentation.
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the leading cause of death in Korean adolescents and it exposes school teachers to the impact of student suicide.
AIMS: This study aimed to explore the bereavement experience of teachers following student suicide.
METHOD: Using semistructured questions, five female teachers working at secondary schools in Korea were interviewed on their bereavement experiences. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach.
RESULTS: Participants described their experiences in dimensions of individuals and professions, yielding four major themes and 11 subthemes. They made efforts to learn about the suicide as a first step toward understanding. Participants suspended their grief in public owing to the atmosphere in their workplace. They aimed to tolerate the suicide and recognized their role anew in preventing student suicide.
CONCLUSION: Following student suicide, bereaved teachers experience a variety of effects, dysfunctions, and adjustments as individuals and professionals. Their experience should be understood in both individual and collective ways in school settings and in the cultural context. The findings encourage school health providers to develop programs and policies to help teachers bereaved by student suicide.
BACKGROUND: The use of advance care planning and advance decisions for psychiatric care is growing. However, there is limited guidance on clinical management when a patient presents with suicidal behaviour and an advance decision and no systematic reviews of the extant literature.
OBJECTIVES: To synthesise existing literature on the management of advance decisions and suicidal behaviour.
DESIGN: A systematic search of seven bibliographic databases was conducted to identify studies relating to advance decisions and suicidal behaviour. Studies on terminal illness or end-of-life care were excluded to focus on the use of advance decisions in the context of suicidal behaviour. A textual synthesis of data was conducted, and themes were identified by using an adapted thematic framework analysis approach.
RESULTS: Overall 634 articles were identified, of which 35 were retained for full text screening. Fifteen relevant articles were identified following screening. Those articles pertained to actual clinical cases or fictional scenarios. Clinical practice and rationale for management decisions varied. Five themes were identified: (1) tension between patient autonomy and protecting a vulnerable person, (2) appropriateness of advance decisions for suicidal behaviour, (3) uncertainty about the application of legislation, (4) the length of time needed to consider all the evidence versus rapid decision-making for treatment and (5) importance of seeking support and sharing decision-making.
CONCLUSIONS: Advance decisions present particular challenges for clinicians when associated with suicidal behaviour. Recommendations for practice and supervision for clinicians may help to reduce the variation in clinical practice.
C’est la musique qui va sauver deux adolescents du naufrage psychologiqe où le suicide du petit ami de l’un et l’accident de voiture de l’autre, resté defiguré, les ont laissés…
A deux minutes près, leurs vies auraient pu ne jamais basculer…
Leur professeur de piano, ayant lui-même perdu un être cher, va les réunir pour une oeuvre à 4 mains de Shubert, et leur permettra de se reconstruire en s’étant apporté à chacun la part de lumière qu’ils pensaient à jamais perdue…
Bien écrit, réaliste, et boulversant de justesse sur les rapports complexes entre adolescents et adultes, quand le chagrin, le sentiment de culpabilité, la haine et le désespoir emportent tout sur leur passage.
Losing a loved one to suicide may have detrimental effects, one of them being suffering from complicated grief (CG). To date, no studies have fully examined the psychological processes that delineate the risk and resilience factors that contribute to CG among suicide-loss survivors (SLSs). We hypothesized that social support and self-disclosure would moderate the relationship between attachment styles and CG for SLS. Questionnaires assessing attachment style, self-disclosure, social support, and CG were completed by 156 SLS participants. A regression model revealed that secure attachment negatively predicted CG, but self-disclosure moderated this association. Secure attachment seems to be a resilient factor for CG. However, SLS with low secure attachment but high in self-disclosure ability use this behavior as a way to impede CG. The capacity to seek out other people, to share experiences with them, and to accept comfort from them may offer a means for SLS to better deal with their tragedy.
PURPOSE: Suicide bereavement confers unique risk and distress. In several countries, bereaved family members are called on to attend an inquest, an official public inquiry into deaths caused by external factors. The current study aimed to explore how suicide-bereaved family members (n = 18) experienced the inquest process, through qualitative semi-structured interviews.
METHOD: Participants were identified via coroner's records and had previously taken part in a case-control study.
RESULTS: Qualitative findings indicated four overall themes with respect to family members' experiences of the inquest process: "inquest as fearfully unknown", "structural processes of the inquest", "enduring public and private pain to obtain answers" and "gaining answers and making sense". Most family members experienced distress and fear as a result of several elements of the inquest process. Some participants had positive experiences but these did not outweigh the distress experienced by the majority of family members regarding their overall experience of the inquest process.
CONCLUSIONS: Key recommendations include informing family members of the main aspects and purpose of the inquest process beforehand, adapting the process to maximise the privacy and comfort of the bereaved relatives, and restricting graphic evidence being heard, where possible, to minimise distress experienced by family members.