Luxury goods have been shown to help individuals coping with death-related anxiety. However, the extent to which the symbolic value allocated to possessions (i.e., materialism) moderates this effect is still unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of materialism on impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands in a context of mortality salience. Results showed that the impact of mortality salience was moderated by materialism with lower impulsive approach tendencies toward luxury clothing brands observed in non-materialistic participants. These findings highlight how materialism values may impact luxury consumption through impulsive pathways in a situation of death-related anxiety.
L'interprofessionnalitéest un des pilliers qui contribuent à l'aide et à l'amélioration des soins donc particulièrement à l'accompagnement des personnes âgées en situation palliative. L'investissement de chacun et l'association des diverses compétences, fait en sorte que les résidents ne sont pas seuls dans cette ultime étape de leur vie et les collaborateurs participent activement à leur accompagnement. Grâce aux échanges, aux réflexions entre collaborateurs, les compétences différentes sont en fait complémentaires et enrichi chacun dans son parcours professionnel : "cela fait de nous ce que nous sommes aujourd'hui" selon Anna, rédactrice de cet article.
Introduction : au plan international, le concept de sédation palliative n’est pas défini de façon uniforme. En Suisse, il est encadré par les recommandations émises en 2005.
Contexte : la conceptualisation de la sédation palliative est susceptible d’être hétérogène chez les infirmiers , en raison de la diversité des protocoles développés localement, mais aussi, des expériences vécues, posant ainsi des difficultés épistémologiques et pratiques. Cette problématique, bien qu’indispensable pour bien circonscrire l’objet de futures recherches en la matière en Suisse, n’a pas été explorée dans la partie francophone de ce pays.
Objectifs : découvrir et décrire la conceptualisation de la sédation palliative par les infirmiers d’une unité de soins palliatifs en Suisse romande.
Méthode : recherche qualitative exploratoire avec entretiens compréhensifs individuels.
Résultats : la sédation palliative est considérée comme un traitement de dernier recours face à un/des symptôme(s) réfractaire(s). La recherche d’une dose minimale efficace et le caractère au moins initialement temporaire de la sédation sont les principaux éléments mis en avant par les infirmiers.
Discussion et conclusion : la conceptualisation de la sédation palliative est conforme aux recommandations suisses. Ces résultats constituent une base afin de développer une étude nationale en la matière.
CONTEXT: Although the number of studies on the economic impact of palliative care (PC) is growing, the great majority report costs from North America.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of PC hospital cost components from the perspective of a European mixed funded health care system by identifying cost drivers of PC and quantifying their effect on hospital costs compared to usual care (UC).
METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational analysis examining cost data from the last hospitalization of patients who died at a large academic hospital in Switzerland comparing patients receiving PC versus UC.
RESULTS: Total hospital costs were similar in PC and UC with a mean difference of CHF -2'777 [95% confidence interval (CI) -12'713 to 8'506, p=0.60]. Average costs per day decreased by CHF -3'224 [95% CI -3'811 to -2'631, p<0.001] for PC patients with significant reduction of costs for diagnostic intervention and medication. Higher cost components for PC patients were catering, room, nursing, social counselling and non-medical therapists. In sensitivity analyses, when we restricted PC exposure to 3 days from admission, total costs and average costs per day were significantly lower for PC.
CONCLUSION: Studies measuring the impact of PC on hospital costs should analyze various cost components beyond total costs in order to understand wanted and potentially unwanted cost-reducing effects. An international definition of a set of cost components, specific for cost-impact PC studies, may help avoid superficial and potentially dangerous cost discussions.
Introduction: For children with cancer, early integration of pediatric palliative care in conjunction with curative treatments is recommended. In Switzerland, pediatric palliative care is mostly provided by an interdisciplinary primary oncology team that is mainly composed of nurses. However, only a small fraction of children receive pediatric palliative care and only a minority of them in a timely manner. The main aim was to identify barriers to the provision of pediatric palliative care in Swiss pediatric oncology.
Method: This qualitative study consisted of five focus groups. In total, 29 pediatric oncology providers participated (13 nurses, 11 physicians, 4 psycho-oncologists, 1 social worker). Data were analyzed employing applied thematic analysis.
Results: Analysis revealed eleven barriers: lack of financial resources, lack of prejob education regarding pediatric palliative care, lack of awareness in politics and policy making, absence of a well-established nationwide bridging care system, insufficient psychosocial and professional supervision for staff, understaffing, inadequate infrastructure of hospitals, asymmetry of factual and emotional knowledge between parents and providers, cultural aspects, irrational parental hopes, and "the unspoken." Discussion: Awareness should be raised for pediatric palliative care (in particular in demarcation from palliative care in adults) among politics and policy makers which could lead to increased financial resources that, in turn, could be used to improve bridging care, hospital's infrastructure, and team support. More flexibility for care determining factors is needed, for example, with respect to convening team meetings, short-termed staffing, and reimbursement at the interface between inpatient and outpatient services.
This article studies forgiveness and reconciliation (F/R) in patients with cancer. It focuses on the end of life, when family conflicts resurface and unfinished business challenges patients and causes spiritual distress. Forgiveness and reconciliation may intensify patient-family relationships and facilitate peace of mind and peaceful death. Existing forgiveness models and interventions focus on coping in life, yet no study has examined F/R processes until death. Our mixed-method exploratory study hypothesized that F/R processes occur in phases, repeatedly, and are spurred by approaching death. Three interdisciplinary units at a major Swiss hospital observed 50 dying patients with cancer experiencing severe conflicts with relatives, themselves, and/or with fate/God. Participant observation was combined with interpretative phenomenological analysis and descriptive statistical analysis. A semi-structured observation protocol was developed based on a 5-phase model. The protocol included space for notes (emotions, interventions, effects on dying processes). It was assessed by 20 professionals for 1 year. Analysis was supported by international interdisciplinary experts. We found that conflicts were complex and involved relational, biographical, and spiritual layers. In 62% of patients, F/R processes occurred repeatedly. Many patients died after finding F/R (22 within 48 hours). Patients indicated that imminent death, a mediating third party, acceptance, and experiences of hope motivated them to seek F/R. Although deep relationships may support F/R processes, our limited data on near-death experience/spiritual experiences restrict interpretation. Forgiveness and reconciliation processes oscillate between 5 phases: denial, crisis, experience of hope, decision, and finding F/R. Understanding F/R processes, empathy, hope, and a neutral third party may support patients in seeking forgiveness.
Depuis les années 2000, en Suisse, le suicide assisté (SA) est en constante augmentation. Cela implique que les soignants, notamment dans les unités de soins palliatifs, sont amenés à prendre en soins des personnes ayant fait une demande de SA. Cette revue de la littérature a pour objectif d'identifier les facteurs pouvant influencer la demande de SA et d'apporter des pistes de réflexion sur la pratique infirmière dans l'accompagnement de ces personnes jusqu'à leur retour à domicile ou à leur éventuel décès. Une consultation des bases de données CINHAL, PubMed et Web of Science a été effectuée entre décembre 2017 et février 2018. Les mots clés utilisés sont : chronic disease, nursing care, assisted suicide/death, death with dignity. Les résultats montrent que les facteurs influençant la demande de SA seraient principalement inhérents et intrinsèquement liés à la personnalité du patient. Les soignants sont peu informés sur les dispositions institutionnelles et légales concernant l'assistance au suicide et sont prêts à s'impliquer à des dégrés divers dans ce processus en fonction de leurs croyances mais aussi de leur niveau de connaissance. L'identification des facteurs influençant la demande de SA met en évidence le besoin d'autonomie et de contrôle des personnes faisant la demande. Par le manque de cadre institutionnel et légal, les soignants sont souvent démunis face à ces situations. Des pistes de réflexion sont proposées concernant le rôle infirmier pour promouvoir le bien-être des personnes au travers du concept d'auto-transcendance de Pamela Reed. Ces résultats sont à considérer avec précaution en vue de la littérature restreinte à ce sujet et du nombre d'articles considérés.
OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) practice in Flanders, Belgium (BE), the Netherlands (NL) and Switzerland (CH).
METHODS: Mortality follow-back surveys among attending physicians of a random sample of death certificates.
RESULTS: We studied 349 EAS deaths in BE (4.6% of all deaths), 851 in NL (4.6% of all deaths) and 65 in CH (1.4% of all deaths). People who died by EAS were mostly aged 65 or older (BE: 81%, NL: 77% and CH: 71%) and were mostly diagnosed with cancer (BE: 57% and NL: 66%). Home was the most common place of death in NL (79%), while in BE and CH, more variation was found regarding to place of death. The decision to perform EAS was more frequently discussed with a colleague physician in BE (93%) and NL (90%) than in CH (60%).
CONCLUSIONS: EAS practice characteristics vary considerably in the studied countries with legal EAS. In addition to the legal context, cultural factors as well as the manner in which legislation is implemented play a role in how EAS legislation translates into practice.
BACKGROUND: Health care providers' perception of pediatric palliative care might negatively influence timely implementation. The aim of the study was to examine understanding of and attitudes towards pediatric palliative care from the perspective of health care providers working in pediatric oncology in Switzerland to promote the timely implementation of pediatric palliative care.
METHODS: Five mixed focus groups were conducted with 29 health care providers (oncologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers) at five Swiss pediatric oncology group centers. The focus group interviews were analyzed using thematic coding.
RESULTS: Most participants associated pediatric palliative care with non-curative treatment. They regularly reported difficulties in addressing palliative care services to families due to the strong stigma surrounding this term. They also thought that the notion of palliative care is very much linked to a policy context, and difficult to reconcile with children's everyday life. To overcome these obstacles many participants used synonyms such as comfort or supportive care. A few providers insisted on the need of using palliative care and reported the importance of positive "word of mouth".
CONCLUSIONS: The use of synonyms might be a pragmatic approach to overcome initial barriers to the implementation of palliative care in pediatrics. However, this tactic might ultimately prove to be ineffective as these terms might acquire the same negative connotations as palliative care. Positive word-of-mouth by satisfied families and healthcare providers might be a more sustainable way to advocate for pediatric palliative care than replacing it with a euphemistic term.
Objectif : Dans la législation suisse, les directives anticipées sont conçues comme instrument permettant au futur patient de faire respecter sa volonté par rapport à de potentiels traitements médicaux. Comment et avec quels effets ces directives anticipées sont-elles perçues et utilisées dans la pratique par les acteurs qui entourent le patient dans les situations de fin de vie en établissement médicosocial et à domicile ? Des entretiens collectifs ont été menés dans trois régions linguistiques de la Suisse avec des médecins (12), des infirmiers (11) et des proches (six et trois entretiens).
Résultats : Une analyse de contenu montre que les directives anticipées sont souvent utilisées comme levier permettant l’ouverture d’un dialogue sur la fin de vie dans une perspective d’autodétermination du patient. Leur mise en œuvre par contre est difficile dans les situations à domicile car les proches portent la responsabilité de leur application alors qu’elle l’est moins en établissement médicosocial où la présence des soignants rend la prise de décision plus diffuse. Ainsi, le poids de l’autodétermination du patient que le législateur concevait être en priorité vis-à-vis du pouvoir médical est principalement porté par les proches et les soignants.
Conclusion : Des améliorations dans l’information et la communication entre les acteurs, des pistes d’action proposées par nos interviewés, ne suffisent pas. Une réflexion plus globale sur la manière dont ces directives s’implémentent dans les situations de fin de vie tendent à montrer que les résultats escomptés par le législateur, soit une amélioration de l’autodétermination du patient, ne sont pas atteints.
This article addresses ethical issues in the conduct of ethnographic research with vulnerable study participants, such as individuals with cognitive impairment. Seven ethical issues emerged from this case study, in which a participant diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease wished to pursue euthanasia in Switzerland: (a) How to protect the participant's autonomy while ensuring his decision had not resulted from untreated depression or modifiable social factors; (b) How to interpret self-harm; (c) How to protect the research team members' "mandated reporter" status; (d) How to counteract the attractive qualities of pro-euthanasia videos depicting an easy end to personal suffering; (e) How to find a better alternative to the common practice of reporting self-harm cases to Adult Protective Services and then removing these cases from studies; (f) How to leverage a participant's trust to address these issues; and (g) Whether researchers should do anything further to help address unmet needs in similar situations.
OBJECTIVE: Switzerland is among the few countries worldwide where a request for assisted suicide (AS) can be granted on the basis of a primary psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatrists play an increasingly important role in this regard, especially when the request for AS arises in the context of suffering caused by severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). The objective of the survey was to assess general attitudes among psychiatrists in Switzerland regarding AS requests from patients with SPMI.
METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey of 1,311 German-speaking psychiatrists in Switzerland, participants were asked about their attitude to AS for patients with SPMI, based on three case vignettes of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, treatment-refractory depression, or severe persistent schizophrenia.
RESULT: From a final sample of 457 psychiatrists (a response rate of 34.9%) whose mean age was 57.8 years, 48.6% of respondents did not support access to AS for persons diagnosed with SPMI, 21.2% were neutral, and 29.3% indicated some degree of support for access. In relation to the case vignettes, a slightly higher percentage of respondents supported the patient's wish to seek AS: 35.4% for those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 32.1% for those diagnosed with depression, and 31.4% for those diagnosed with schizophrenia.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Although a majority of the responding psychiatrists did not support AS for SPMI patients, about one-third would have supported the wishes of patients in the case vignettes. In light of the increasing number of psychiatric patients seeking AS and the continuing liberalization of AS practices, it is important to understand and take account of psychiatrists' perspectives.
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, people can be granted access to assisted suicide (AS) on condition that the person whose wish is to die performs the fatal act, that he has his decisional capacity and that the assisting person's conduct is not selfishly motivated. No restrictions relating to the ground of suffering are mentioned in the act. Existential suffering as a reason for wanting to die, however, gives raise to controversial issues. Moreover, existential suffering lacks definition and no consensus exists on how to evaluate and manage it. This study explores the perspectives of care professionals and volunteers from a "right-to-die organization" on existential suffering as a motive for assisted suicide requests.
METHODS: A qualitative study based on face-to-face interviews was conducted with twenty-six participants: palliative care and primary care providers as well as EXIT right-to-die organization volunteers. Elements from the grounded theory approach were used.
RESULTS: The twenty-six participants described existential suffering in a multiplicity of individual ways. In total, sixty-three stories were recounted. Their representations were grouped into eight categories: physical decline and its consequences, loneliness, fear of the future, life is over, loss of social significance, loss of hope for a better future, being a financial burden and loss of pleasurable activities. According to all participants, suffering coming from the loss of self-identity was always linked to physical decline, as if one's image completely defined someone's identity. Society's perception of old people and vulnerable people were also often questioned. Another interesting point was that only four stories referring to a "pure" existential suffering were found. This suffering was related to a feeling that life has come to an end, without identification of any other related restriction or suffering.
CONCLUSIONS: Existential suffering is multifaceted. Legislators and right-to-die organisations have to address the question of what make a AS acceptable. The plurality of existential suffering implies the need of a very personalized care. A better understanding of what it is made of could provide a "toolbox" to people concerned by these requests, helping them to explore it in order to offer suffering people a wider range of alternatives.
Dans plusieurs pays, des législations visant à autoriser certaines formes d’euthanasie active ou d’aide au suicide ont été adoptées. Or l’assistance altruiste au suicide est légale en Suisse depuis fort longtemps. Cette attitude libérale a des racines historiques intéressantes, en partie antérieures à la discussion « moderne » centrée sur l’autonomie de la personne face à la mort. Pourtant, l’analyse précise du paysage normatif qui encadre l’assistance au suicide en Suisse est malaisée car en plus du droit positif, des normes informelles y jouent un grand rôle. Nous présentons une analyse de cette situation normative en utilisant les concepts de privilèges et prétentions développés par W. N. Hohfeld et L. Wenar. Cette analyse relève l’importance d’une réflexion philosophique qui va au-delà du débat bioéthique pour saisir la nature des libertés fondamentales engagées dans l’accès à la mort assistée.
BACKGROUND: Assisted dying and continuous deep sedation (CDS) are controversial practices. Little is known about the perceptions of physicians and surrogates about these practices for patients with advanced dementia.
OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare physician and surrogate agreement with the use of assisted dying and CDS in advanced dementia.
DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS: Physicians (n = 64) and surrogates (n = 168) of persons with advanced dementia were recruited as part of a randomized controlled trial in Switzerland that tested decision support tools in this population.
METHODS: At baseline, the participants were asked about their agreement with assisted dying and CDS in advanced dementia using the following response options: "completely agree," "somewhat agree," "somewhat disagree," "completely disagree," and "do not know." Multivariable logistic regressions compared the likelihood that surrogates versus physicians would completely or somewhat agree (vs. completely or somewhat disagree) with these practices.
RESULTS: The physicians and surrogates, respectively, had a mean age (SD) of 50.6 years (9.9) and 57.4 years (14.6); 46.9% (n = 30/64) and 68.9% (n = 115/167) were women. A total of 20.3% (n = 13/64) of the physicians and 47.0% (n = 79/168) of the surrogates agreed with assisted dying in advanced dementia. Surrogates were significantly more likely to agree with this practice than physicians (adjusted odds ratio, 3.87; 95% CI: 1.94, 7.69). With regard to CDS, 51.6% (n = 33/64) of the physicians and 41.9% (n = 70/169) of the surrogates agreed with this practice, which did not differ significantly between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The surrogates were more agreeable to considering assisted dying in the setting of advanced dementia than the physicians, and about half of the participants in both groups reported CDS to be an appropriate option for this population.
BACKGROUND: The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS) was developed for evaluating essential outcomes for palliative care patients. Our objectives here are to describe the process of a six-phase cross-cultural adaptation of IPOS to French (IPOS-Fr), highlight the difficulties encountered and strategies to solve them, and discuss the implications that adaptation may have on the validity and reliability of a questionnaire.
METHODS: The adaptation of IPOS consisted of six phases: (i) literature review and interviews with target population; (ii) forward translation to French; (iii) backward translation to English; (iv) Expert Review; (v) cognitive interviews with target population; (vi) final review.
RESULTS: Translation, cognitive interviews, and exchanges with Expert Review members allowed to make changes adapted to the target language regarding item 5 ("vomiting") and 8 ("sore or dry mouth"), and to identify and address, in the original version of IPOS, syntactic inconsistencies in language used in items 11 to 15 and methodological problems with items 11 ("anxiety about treatment and illness"), 15 ("share … as much as you wanted") and 17 ("problems addressed"). The adaptation also indicated that patients might have difficulties in interpreting items 8 ("sore or dry mouth"), 10 ("poor mobility"), 11 ("anxiety"), 12 (projected feelings of family and friends), and 14 ("feeling at peace"), thus indicating the need of monitoring during the psychometric validation.
CONCLUSIONS: Following this process, IPOS-Fr has proved content and face validity. In our case, the adaptation allowed adjustments to be made to the questionnaire and, when this was not possible, highlighted potential biases and inconsistencies during the validation. The result relied on an intertwined and iterative process of seeking and reaching semantic, conceptual, and normative equivalence. We are now assessing the psychometrical properties of IPOS-Fr.
BACKGROUND: Some patients develop severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) which is therapy-refractory. The needs of these patients sometimes remain unmet by therapeutic interventions and they are at high risk of receiving care that is inconsistent with their life goals. Scholarly discourse has recently begun to address the suitability of palliative care approaches targeting at enhancing quality of life for these patients, but remains to be developed.
METHOD: A cross-sectional survey asked 1311 German-speaking psychiatrists in Switzerland (the total number of German-speaking members of the Swiss Society for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy) about the care of SPMI patients in general, and about palliative care approaches in particular. 457 (34.9%) returned the completed survey. In addition, participants were asked to evaluate three case vignettes of patients with SPMI.
RESULTS: The reduction of suffering and maintaining daily life functioning of the patient were rated as considerably more important in the treatment of SPMI than impeding suicide and curing the underlying illness. There was broad agreement that SPMI can be terminal (93.7%), and that curative approaches may sometimes be futile (e.g. 72.4% for the anorexia nervosa case vignette). Furthermore, more than 75% of the participating psychiatrists were in favour of palliative care approaches for SPMI.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the participating psychiatrists in Switzerland regard certain forms of SPMI as posing high risk of death. Additionally, a majority of respondents consider palliative care approaches appropriate for this vulnerable group of patients. However, the generalizability of the results to all psychiatrists in Switzerland or other mental health professionals involved in the care of SPMI is limited. This limitation is important considering the reservations towards palliative care in the context of psychiatric illness, mainly because of the association with death and futility. Palliative care approaches, however, are applicable in conjunction with other therapies intended to prolong life. A next step could be to involve service users and develop a consensus of what palliative care might encompass in SPMI. A framework for identifying which patients might benefit from palliative care, should be explored for the future development of care for SPMI patients.
BACKGROUND: Health care expenditures (HCE) are known to steepen with increasing age, but the contributions of biological age, morbidity, or proximity to death as cost drivers are debated. Age-associated HCE growth can be studied across two dimensions: within fixed groups of persons with the same birth year followed over time (birth cohort), or the same age classes (e.g. 66 to 70 year olds) at different time points (age-class analysis). Using health insurance claims data including morbidity and mortality information, HCE growth was analyzed in Swiss mandatory health insurance for the years 1996 to 2011 and compared across the two age dimensions.
RESULTS: Deflated HCE were analyzed for 104,000 persons from three birth cohorts (1921-25, 1926-30, 1931-35). Two-part regression models were adjusted for proximity-to-death (death within same or next calendar year) and morbidity indicators (hospitalization, high drug expenditures, and pharmaceutical cost groups from 2006 onwards). When analyzing HCE growth within birth cohorts, controlling for survival and morbidity status decreased age-associated HCE estimates by 31% to 51% compared to crude age averages. The total HCE volume share of decedents rose from 19% to 31% in the 1931-35 birth cohort and from 28% to 51% for the 1921-25 birth cohort. The analysis of same age classes (e.g. 71-75 year olds) over different years revealed no HCE growth (steepening) in excess of deflation for groups aged 75 years or less, and only moderate HCE growth for those =76 years. For the 76+ age classes, the population fraction of decedents decreased by -3% (age 76-80) and -15% (age 81-85) over time, whilst the total HCE volume share of decedent-associated HCE increased by +16% and +9%, with an HCE growth of +3.2% and +2.5% per year.
CONCLUSIONS: HCE growth was dominated by end-of-life HCE, but residual age-associated HCE growth remained pertinent, the extent of which however depended on morbidity indicator definitions. A better understanding of shifts in chronic disease prevalence with rising age, as well as associated HCE and survival impacts of treatment will be key for further refining future HCE projections.
Purpose: The dignity of patients is a major concern among health professionals engaged in the care of individuals with advanced cancer. Although several dignity promoting interventions have been developed, none of them have focused on a positive, resource-based approach. The aim of our study, entitled Revie, was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a theory-guided life-review intervention, focusing on strength and resources, for patients with advanced cancer and for nurses delivering the intervention.
Method: Our 2015–2016 study was conducted with patients with advanced cancer in an ambulatory and an inpatient setting of a Swiss university hospital. An embedded concurrent mixed method design was used. The feasibility and acceptability of Revie was explored, as were changes in the sense of dignity, posttraumatic growth, and satisfaction with life.
Results: A total of 41 patients received the intervention. The level of attrition was low (26%). Administering the Revie intervention proved to be feasible. Participants (patients and nurses) considered the intervention helpful with a high level of satisfaction. A merged data analysis highlighted the need to address the patients’ existential concerns. The majority of the participants found that the intervention helped them, and they recommend it for other patients.
Conclusions: This study indicates that the Revie intervention, which focuses on a resource-based approach, was perceived favorably by all of the participants. A change in the nurse-patient relationship was noted and it was deemed to be beneficial.
Par effets de médias, le suicide assisté se transforme en un acte militant puis se propage. Voilà enfin le contre-témoignage qui alerte sur cet abus, notamment lorsque l'aide médicale à mourir est accordée à des personnes en bonne santé. L'auteur commence par enquêter sur le suicide de son frère. Bien documenté, il s'adresse aux responsables politiques, mais aussi du droit et de la santé publique pour les mettre en garde contre la banalisation de cette pratique. Il prévient contre une dérive sociétale qui se voue au culte de la mort.